Russian Type 53 (533mm) torpedos inside a Kilo 877EKM submarine. (Courtesy http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/kilo877/ ) which advises:
"The Type 877EKM has six 533mm torpedo tubes and carries 18 heavyweight torpedoes (six in the tubes and 12 on the racks), with an automatic rapid loader.
[Only] Two targets can be engaged simultaneously. Two of the launch tubes can fire the TEST-71MKE TV electric homing torpedo, which has an active sonar homing system with TV guidance which allows the operator to manually switch to an alternative target, and can manoeuvre in two axes. It weighs 1,820kg with a 205kg explosive charge.
The submarine is also fitted with UGST wake-homing torpedoes. This torpedo weighs 2,200kg with a 200kg explosive charge. It has a range of up to 40km, and a depth of search of up to 500m. The tubes are also capable of deploying 24 mines."
Countries have used anti-torpedo measures for over a century. Sinodefenceforum explains a recent project "The US Navy is actively developing and testing a comprehensive anti-torpedo weapon system that is called the Surface ShipTorpedo Defense (SSTD) system [diagram above] consisting of [sensors and target acuisition and] a Countermeasure Anti-Torpedo (CAT) against incoming enemy torpedos of all types.
- Type 53 - a 533mm torpedo. Possibly the most common Russian torpedo type. The Type 53 torpedo family contain numerous possible types of sensors including sonar, TV, magnetic, wake pressure and contact etc. They may home into a surface ship's wake or a stationary ship. The 53-65 became operational in 1965, while the 53-65K and 53-65M both became operational in 1969. The 53-65KE is an exported version. China received an unknown number of 53-65KE torpedoes from Russia after purchasing 4 Kilo class submarines in the 1990s. The Type 53 torpedo is carried by almost all Russian submarines, including Kilo class and Akula class. Range: 18+ km, Speed: 83 km/h (45 kt), Warhead: 307.6 kilograms.
- Type 65 for 650mm torpedos originally developed to counter US Navy aircraft carrier battle groups, large merchant ships like supertankers, and advanced enemy submarines. Russian officials believe that a 65-76A modification of this torpedo is responsible for the explosion of the Kursk. Range: 50 km at 93 km/h (50 knots), 100 km at 56 km/h. Homing: active/passive sonar and wire guidance. Warhead: 450/557 kg high explosive. Propulsion probably gas-turbine powered by hydrogen peroxide, kerosene and compressed air fuel. Driving contra-rotating propellers.
If a Type 65 is fired at over-the-horizon extreme range such platforms as satellites or UAVs may provide final aiming information (for example against a carrier battle group). Klub missiles, launched by the submarine, might also assist in aiming - as well as the Klubs directly tarketing the carrier battle group.
- VA-111 Shkval torpedo - Russia's most publicized torpedo due to its unusually rare propulsion. This extremely noisy 533mm rocket powered torpedo is supercavitating . It is thought to be used as a revenge weapon (when the host sub is about to be destroyed) hence the host sub being detected, due to it launching a noisy Shkval, is a low consideration. Only 2, 1 or none might be carried on most Russian subs.
MHalblaub's mention at of Russian torpedos is useful. MHalblaub advises that “The Russian do use a hypergolic propellant (Kerosene + hydrogen peroxide) for torpedoes (remember the Kursk!)" The Kursk leakage of its hydrogen peroxide fuel onto metals and oxides in a Type 65 or 53 torpedo, resulting in a chemical reaction that culminated in an explosion of the fuel and a kerosene tank and the Kursk's eventual destruction.
On Submarine Matters: Russian heavyweight torpedos under development; Russian lightweight torpedos; and Russian naval mines will also be considered.