January 28, 2020

India's K-4 may only be effective from 2030


In response to ghalibkabir’s comments about the K-4, of January 23, 2020 my comments are:

For several reasons the K-4 submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM) may not be fully deployed, economical or strategically effective until 2030. Since 2010 the K-4 has undergone several pontoon launches, one reported (but unproven) "dummy payload" submerged launch from INS Arihant on March 31, 2016 but then a failed pontoon launch on December 17, 2017 launch. Two successful pontoon launches took place on January 19 and 24, 2020. But the K-4 may need 3 years for 10 successful tests involving submarine launch and actual missile flight. 

All launch tubes in INS Arihant and INS Arighat may take 3 years to convert/develop for the K-4. So maybe 2026 for full K-4 deployment on Arihant and Arighat.to be considered reliable.

India has been unable to develop multiple warheads/MIRVs per missile and may take 10 years to do so. Only one warhead per K-4 with only 4 K-4s from Arihant would not be a economical/viable deterrent. A K-4 needs 3 or 4 warheads/MIRVs to be an adequate weapon system on economic and strategic grounds. As Arihant and Arighat can only take 4 x K-4s Chinese anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems might be able to shoot all of them down. It is unknown whether K-4s can deploy "penetration aids" such as chaff or decoys to compensate for the current one warhead per K-4 problem. So India may take 10 years (until 2030) to finally develop reliable MIRVs.

Ghalibkabir refers to is the K-4's warhead maybe having an explosive power of 50 kT. This is perhaps insufficient to destroy deep dug Chinese command centers. 50 kT suggests India has only developed boosted fission nuclear weapons (as at the 1998 Shakti I test). India may not have developed more advanced 2-stage thermonuclear weapons (when on SLBMs often rated at 100-150 kT). 50 kT is less than SLBMs of other nuclear powers. For example Missile Threat indicates a Chinese JL-2 can deploy one warhead of 1 MT or 3 to 8 MIRVs with 20/90/150 kT warheads. Also China’s Type 094 “Jin class” SSBNs deploy 12 JL-2s.

So the K-4 may take until 2030 to be a fully deployed, economical and strategically effective SLBM.

Pete

January 26, 2020

Happy India Republic and Australia Day!

The National Flag of India – a tricolour of India saffron, white and India green; with the
  Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre.
---

January 26th is India Republic Day and Australia Day!   

India's Republic Day features a large parade in New Delhi.

Indian Australians include both those who are Australian by birth and those born in India or elsewhere in the Indian diaspora. Indians are the youngest average age (34 years) and the fastest growing community both in terms of absolute numbers and percentages in Australia.[3]
In 2017-18 India, with median age of 34 years and 2.4% population of Australia, was the largest source of new permanent annual migrants to Australia since 2016...
Of the top 10 languages spoken in AustraliaIn Hindi is ranked 8th with 0.7% of total population and  Punjabi 10th with 0.6% of total population.[4][5][6] 
The largest Indian Australian population is found in the state of Victoria.[7] Among Indian origin religions, which also include non-Indians, are Buddhist (2.4% of total population or 563700 people), Hindus (1.9% or 440300) and Sikhs (0.5% or 125900).[5]
Indians were the highest educated migrant group in Australia with 54.6% of Indians in Australia having a bachelor's or higher degree, more than three times Australia's national average.[8]





“The date 26 January is always special for Indians. More so in Australia, since we get a holiday and are able to celebrate our country of origin and the country we have chosen to live in on the same day!

In Adelaide [South Australia], the tradition of hoisting the Indian flag on Republic Day started only [in 2016]. So it was quite special hoisting it again on a make-shift pole and singing Jana Gana Mana standing under it. More than a hundred voices rose with the raising of the flag and it was a very special moment. The Australian national anthem [Advance Australia Fair] was also sung and this was followed by speeches inside the Indian Education Centre Hall.”

Some universal words:


They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise
The saving of all people waits in thy hand.

Our land abounds in nature's gifts
Of beauty rich and rare.

Pete

January 17, 2020

Australia's French nuclear propulsion and nuke weapons potential

Pete's response to "Steve's" comment of January 17, 2020,

Hi Steve

Noting Australia's Attack class project - from development to last sub retirement mission is around 60 years (2080), much can happen.

Likely changes may include China becoming the dominat power in East Asia, West Pacific and maybe in the Indian Ocean. This would be an outcome of relative decline in US dominance, and less US interest in defending Australia at all costs.

The long game - So Australia needs to nurture new allies, nuclear armed if possible. Nuclear armed France is an obvious choice - France having territory in New Caledonia (very much in the China blockade arc over Australia) and in French Polynesia/Tahiti. 

Australia also re-nurtured its military relationship with the nuclear armed UK by choosing the future UK designed "Hunter-class" ("Type 26" in the UK) frigate.

So French strategic assistance was a good aspect to buy in the Attack class sub deal.

Also, France (unlike Germany or Japan) can offer nuclear powered "Attack class" (ie. Barracuda SSNs). France is already assisting Brazil's much delayed SSN program https://gentleseas.blogspot.com/2014/01/brazil-future-ssn-dcns-assistance.html .

If the China threat becomes severe enough France (unlike Germany or Japan) can-might also assist Australia in developing nuclear weapons. Such assistance might quietly begin from the 2030-2040 timeframe. $Billions for the Attack class helps. 

France may have assisted apartheid era South Africa develop crude nuclear weapons "The possibility of South Africa collaborating with France[5] and Israel in the development of nuclear weapons was the subject of speculation during the 1970s.[6] South Africa developed a small finite deterrence arsenal of gun-type fission weapons in the 1980s. Six were constructed and another was under construction at the time the program ended.[7]

France certainly helped Israel. See https://fas.org/nuke/guide/israel/nuke/farr.htm "...ISRAEL'S NUCLEAR WEAPONS" by (then active) Lieutenant Colonel Warner D. Farr, U.S. Army:

"Abstract

This paper is a history of the Israeli nuclear weapons program drawn from a review of unclassified sources. Israel began its search for nuclear weapons at the inception of the state in 1948. As payment for Israeli participation in the Suez Crisis of 1956, France provided nuclear expertise and constructed a reactor complex for Israel at Dimona capable of large-scale plutonium production and reprocessing."

see subheading "II. 1948-1962: With French Cooperation"

Shimon "Peres secured an agreement from France to assist Israel in developing a nuclear deterrent...."

subheading "III. 1963-1973: Seeing the Project to Completion"

"...The joint venture with France gave Israel several ingredients for nuclear weapons construction: a production reactor, a factory to extract plutonium from the spent fuel, and the design. In 1962, the Dimona reactor went critical; the French resumed work on the underground plutonium reprocessing plant, and completed it in 1964 or 1965. The acquisition of this reactor and related technologies was clearly intended for military purposes from the outset (not “dual-use”), as the reactor has no other function..."


France, through the company Dassault, also assisted with Israel's nuclear warhead delivery system in the shape of the Jericho I ballistic missile: 

"Initial development was in conjunction with France, Dassault provided various missile systems from 1963 and a type designated MD-620 was test fired in 1965. French co-operation was halted by an arms embargo in January 1968, though 12 missiles had been delivered from France.[7]" 

PETE COMMENT

If Australia discussed with France the proliferation of SSNs and nuclear weapons know-how then that may induce longer term allies (the US or even the UK) to make pre-emptive counter-offers of nuclear assistance to Australia.

January 15, 2020

Submarine Lithium-ion Batteries - Third Review of Battery Arrangements

Following "Huge Study on Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) for Submarines" of December  16, 2019 Anonymous has kindly written a Third Review of Lithium-ion Battery (LIB) arrangements. The Second Review was not published. Changes are in pink. The main revisions are as follows:


1.    Detail description of LIBs for Russian submarine including Kilo-class. Figs. 8 and 9 were added.
2.    Description of LIBs for Japanese submarine.
3.    Addition of Energy density in Table 3 and
4.    Format and expressions were changed to accord Submarine Matters' usage.

No patents on NCA by Japanese company GS-YUASA could be found. No information on sales and  manufacturing of NCA by GS-YUASA could be found.

Anonymous thinks GS-YUASA buys NCA batteries or has a manufacturing license approved by the  Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD). If that is the case, the NCA supplier/licensor (X ) needs the following:

i)            X has patents of NCA, is manufacturing NCA and has enough technology.
ii)           X has a strong and stable financing  (big company),
iii)          X is relied by MOD (X has been reliable Japanese supplier of MOD), 
iv)          there is a reliable relationship between X and GS-YUASA.  A company that satisfies
              conditions i) - iii) is only Panasonic as far as Anonymous knows. 

A few years ago, Panasonic sold all LABs sections to GS-YUASA  making it the biggest LAB manufacturer in Japan. From these facts, Anonymous believes Panasonic offers NCA technology to GS-YUASA.

In this Third Review below recent information on LIBs in Submarine Matters are reviewed with additional new insights, and they are summarized. Battery cells suitable for submarine are estimated from published data, and battery modules and battery groups are also estimated. Finally, energy of battery is estimated. As many assumptions are used, the estimations in this contribution might sometimes be different from fact.

Summary (of possible adoption of Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) in future submarine classes):

-      In current AIP submarines which have Lead-acid Batteries (LABs), the energy of LIBs is considerably lower than for non-AIP submarine (like Soryu/29SS). Soryu/29SS will show best performance at high speed (Table 4).

-      The LIBs in future South Korean 2000t (eg. the DSME 2000) and 3000t (eg. The KSS-III Batch 2) subs will generate higher energy at ever lower cost. The 2000t submarine will become a strong competitor of the future Type 214-LIB (which may have LIBs).

-      In the TKMS Type 212CD and Italian built Type 212NSF, non-magnetic hulls and minimal magnetic field created by batteries will be important. For those subs the width of a battery group is narrow to make variation of vertical position of battery groups small.

-      Australia’s future Attack-class may adopt bigger battery groups than Type 212CDs. If Naval Group fully adopt LIBs in the early 2020s, then possible NAVAL Group Shortfin for - Walrus replacement and future LIB-Scorpene may precede an Attack class equipped with LIBs - with all Naval Group classes adopting the same LIBs battery groups. If the future Attack-class retains LABs then this may be a waste of time and money.

-     Numbers and energy (192pieces, 6.1MWh) of LIBs for China’s Yuan 039B is significantly smaller than reported ones (960 pieces, 32MWh). WB-LYP10000AHA shows excellent performance as Iron Phosphate based battery.

-     Energy level of LIBs (if adopted) for Lada/Amur-class is as same as Western counterparts.[This is noting that Russia has made so little progress with AIP (for Ladas/Amurs in 20 years) that Russia may upgrade future Ladas/Amurs instead]. As Kilo-class is a proven subamerine at a  reasonable price, LIB-Kilo is an attractive choice than Amur-class for some countries.

-      SAAB-DAMEN equips with bigger [heavier] LIBs to satisfy Netherland Navy requirements [for more energy in its 3,000 ton A26s to replace the Walrus's].

-      Currently, safety (=no hydrogen generation) and better maintenance of LIBs are emphasized rather than increase in energy except Soryu/29SS (see SORYU TABLE).


Figure 1

While voltage of LAB is 2V and all of LABs are directly connected to produce high voltage, voltage of LIB is much higher (nominal voltage : 3.2-3.7V) and combination of direct and parallel connection is adopted in LIBs. Favorable numbers of battery groups and battery strings are multiples of four (4, 8, 12, etc.) for minimization of stray magnetic field.



Stern

Series connection of battery groups


































Bow
































































































































































































































Starboard


Figure 1   Battery group arrangement and its connection for LIB-submarine



Table 1 Definition of terms

Term
Definition
Battery
A parallel circuit composed of battery groups (blue area surrounded by double solid lines in Fig.1).
Battery string
A series of battery groups;
Battery group
A parallel circuit composed of battery lines (blue area surrounded by single solid lines in Fig.1),
Battery line
A series circuit composed of individual battery cells

Asubmarine has one battery or two batteries. Favorable numbers of battery groups and battery strings are multiples of four (4, 6, 12, etc.) for minimization of indiscrete stray magnetic fields [that enemy sensors may detect. Stray magnetic fields may also adversely effect electrical/electronic equipment in a submarine]. Figure 1 is a battery consisted of 8 battery strings where a battery string consists of 8 battery groups.


Table 2  Lithium ion battery cells for LIB-submarine

Lithium ion battery cells are listed in Table 2. The battery cells of FAAM and SAFT are square and others are cylindrical. Square battery cell shows higher efficiency than cylindrical one. Polymer (PO), LFP (lithium ion phosphate), LYP (lithium Ytterium) show higher safety. The best battery cell of the manufacturer is used for submarine.

SAMSUNG SDI shows high performance and excellent price by adopting commercial battery cells for EV (Electric Vhicle). As a reference, Russian latest square type cell (Liotech, LT-LFP72) is introduced. Energy density of LT-LYP (Yttrium added LFP)770 is lower than LT-LFP72[14].

  

Cell name

Make
Type
D
W
H or L
Weight
Voltage
Capacity

Energy density *6
Ref



mm
mm
mm
kg
V
Ah
Wh/kg

SLPB160460330H
Kokam
NMC PO (*1)
14.8
462
327
4.58
3.7
200
164
1
SLPB160460330
Kokam
NMC PO
15.8
462
327
4.51
3,7
240
197
1
94Ah
SAMSUNG SDI
Prismatic NCM
45
173
125
2.01
3.68
94
174
4
111Ah
SAMSUNG SDI
Prismatic NCM
45
173
125
2.01
3.68
111
204
5,6
-
FAAM
LFP
63 (*3)
-
225
1.51
3.2
65
139
7
-
GS-YUASA
NCA
-
-
-
-
3.6
-
250 (*2)

NCA103450 (*2)
Panasonic
NCA
10.5
33.8
48.5
0.0383
3.6
2.35
220
20
SCiB™ 20Ah
Toshiba
LTO
22
116
106
0.515
2.38
20
89.3
8
SCiB™ 23Ah
Toshiba
LTO
22
116
106
0.55
2.38
23
96.1
8
VL56E (*2)
SAFT
LFP
54.1 (*2)
-
244
(*4)
1.17
3.3
56
158
10
LT-LFP 72 (*5)
Liotech
LFP
135
30
222
= or less than 1.8
3.2
72
130
14
*1 Lithium polymer battery
*2 General data of NCA (Lithium Nickel Aluminum)
*3 Diamter
*4 Estimation by using SAFT VL48E and VL52LE
*5 The third generation LFP. Liotech is Russian Lithium ion battery maker.
*6 Energy = Capacity x Vlotage, Energy density =Energy/weight
*7 There is no information on NCA by GS-YUASA. Panasonic NCA103450 is introduced as a reference instead.


Table 3  Lithium ion battery modules (single module) for LIB-submarine

Various factors including diameter of submarine hatch, curvature of pressure hull, dimension and location of batteries, numbers of battery groups and battery modules (4, 8, 12, etc.), and size and performance of battery cell are considered to decide architecture of battery modules.

Details of SAFT-TKMS battery group are not reported, but, its footprint is expected to resemble FAAM battery group. SAFT-NAVAL battery group is hypothetical model based on SAFT-TKMS battery group.




Module name
Make
Cell name
Cell
D
W
H
Weight
Voltage
Capacity
Energy
Energy density
Ref



number-
mm
mm
mm
kg
V
Ah
kWh
Wh/kg

Green Orca
Floattech
SLPB160460330H
14
542
335
541
82
51.8
200
10.3
126
2
Green Orca
Floattech
SLPB160460330
14
542
335
541
80
51.8
240
12.4
155
3
M8994 E2 (*1)
94Ah
24
370
588
160
Less than
60
88.3
94
8.39
138
5,6
E3-090
111Ah
24
370
588
160
Less than 60
88.3
111
9.91
163
5,6
-
FAAM
-
24
252
378
225
More than
36
76.8
65
5.00
139
7
-
GS-YUASA
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
178 (*7)

20Ah 2P12S
Toshiba
24
360
190
125
14
27.6
40
1.10
79
9
23Ah 2P12S (*2)
Toshiba*1
SCiB™ 23Ah
24
360
190
125
15
27.6
45
1.24
83

(*3)
SAFT-TKMS
VL56E
16
237
586
131
Less than
20
52.8
56
2.95
148

(*4)
SAFT-NAVAL
VL56E
24
345
530
131
Less than
30
39.6
112
4.43
148

(*5)
Liotech
LT-LFP 72
36
270
540
222
64.8
57.2
144
8.23
127
19
(*6)
Winston Battery
WB-LYP10000AHA
11
367
687
756
335
3.2
10000
3210
96
16

*2 Estimation by using various Toshiba [8,10]
*3 Estimation by using various SAFT publications and TKMS LIB [11,12,13]. Footprint of SAFT-TKMS is assumed to be as same as FAAM.
*4 This model is hypothetical. Change battery change through a hatch with diameter of 650-711mm [15], which is estimated from hatch of Suffren submarine, and cell of VL56E are considered.
*5 Estimation based on battery arrangement of Kilo-class.
*7 Esimation by using Pnasonic NCA103450 cell, SAMSUNG SDI 111Ah cell and SAMSUNG SDI E3-090 module
Figures 2 to 9

Battery modules and battery groups based on FAAB cell, latest SAFT VL56E cell and LT LFP 72 cell are proposed in these figures. Dimension of FAAB battery module is decided based on perspective view of Type 212A and picture of FAAB battery module. The SAFT modules and groups are assumed to be different from SAFT commercial Flex’ionTM Figures 4&6 and 5&7 correspond to SAFT-TKMS and SAFT-NAVAL, respectively. Improvement of FAAB and SAFT cylindrical cells to square type cells will provide increase of energy (e.g., plus 20%).

In Figures 8 and 9, Lada-class (single hull, beam 7.1m) and Kilo-class (double hull, dianmeter of inner hull 7.2m) were compared, also LABs arrangement in Kilo-class (12 x 15 LABs and 8 x 15LABs under diesel and torpedo sections, respectively) were considered to estimate number and dimension of battery groups and their arrangement.












W=378mm
D=252mm













BTU (*1)

BTU
H=
ca.1100mm































W=378mm
D=252mm



H=225mm























Front view
Side view


Front view
Side view
Figure 2  Battery module consists of 24 FAAB cells
 24 cylindrical battery cells (diameter 63mm, blue solid line) are vertically arranged.


Figure 3  Battery group consists of 4 layers of [24 FAAB cells]-modules
Battery modules (blue solid line) & battery group (double solid line).
(*1) Battery Management Unit = BMU.















W=530mm


















D=345mm


W=586mm














D=273mm






































Top view






Top view






H=131mm






H=131mm










Front view






Front view


Figure 4  Battery module consists of 16 VL56E cells

Battery module consists of 2 battery trays. A battery tray consists of horizontally arranged 8 VL56E cylindrical cells (diameter 54.1mm, solid line). Inner diameter of submarine hatch is assumed to be 650-711mm.


Figure 5  Battery module consist of 24 VL56E cells

Battery module consists of 2 battery trays. A battery tray consists of  horizontally arranged 12 VL56E cylindrical cells (diameter 54.1mm, diblue solid line). Inner diameter of submarine hatch is assumed to be 650-711mm.

  


W=586mm
D=273mm


W=530mm
D=345mm
H=
ca.
1200mm
BTU

BTU


H=ca.1200mm
BTU

BTU










































Front view
Side view


Front view
Side view
Figure 6  Battery group consists of 8 layers of [16-VL56E cells]-modules.
Battery modules (blue solid line) & battery group (double solid line) are assumed from pictures of TKMS battery modules and data of SAFT battery cells/modules.

Figure 7  Battery group consists of 8 layers of [24-VL56E cells]-modules
Structure of battery group (double solid line) is based on Figure 6 and maximum package of battery modules (blue solid line). Height is estimated from curvature of pressure hull and other factors.




W=540mm






































































































Top view


D=270mm


H=222mm














































Front view


Side view


Figure 8  Battery module consists of 36 LT-LFP 72 cells

Number (n) of battery cell is assumed to be 36, but, n = 34 also is possible. Encloseute is neglected..





W=540mm
D=270-300mm


BTU


BTU


H=1250mm


















































Front view
Side view
Figure 9  Battery group consists of 4 [36-LT-LFP 72 cells] modules

Enclosure of battery group is considered. Diameter of hatch is 650mm. Height of battery group is estimated from perspective of Kilo-class

Table 4  Structures of battery group and energy of battery for LIB-submarine

Explanation – Battery Management Unit (BMU) is located on the top of battery group (Table 3 (a)). Adoption of LIBs does not always provide significant increase in absolute energy of batteries. Increase in actual energy due to bigger depth of discharge in LIBs (80%), easy maintenance and higher safety without generation of hydrogen are achieved for LIBs. As output of AIP is not high, increase of LIBs is important to improve performance of submarine at high speed. Adoption of optical mast provides improved freedom of sections and arrangement of batteries. Here batteries are assumed to locate under diesel generator and torpedo sections. 

A Non-AIP submarine is equipped with larger amounts of LIBs than AIP submarine as shown in the Soryu/29SS and Kilo. As estimated energy of a LAB battery group for Kilo-class is 3.36MWh (*11), considerting depth of discharge (DOD, 50% for LABs and 80% for LIBs), energy of LIBs will increase 3.8-4.8 times of LABs. Kilo-class is a proven submarine with reasonable price. Therefore, LIB-Kilo may be more attravtive choise than Amur- class, which has unproven AIP and single hull structure (Russian submarine has double hull structure), for some countries.



a
Configura-tion of a battery group:

BMU (Battery Management Unit, ye1low), battery modules (blue solid line), battery group (double solid line)
































































































































































































































b
Make
GS-YUASA
SAMSUNG SDI
SAFT-TKMS
SAFT-
NAVAL
FAAM
Liotech
Floattech
Winston Battery
c
Submarine builder
KHI/MHI
HHI(Hyndai Heavy Industries)
TKMS
NAVAL-ASC
FINCAN-TIERI
Russia
SAAB-DAMEN
SAAB
China
d
Number of battery modules in a battery group
10
8
8
8
4
5
2
2
1
f
Voltage of a battery group [V] (*1)
36
88.3
52.8
39.6
76.8
57.4
51.8
51.8
3.2
g
Energy of a battery group
[kWh]
86(*10)
70.2 (*2)
23.6 (*3)
35.5 (*4)
20.0
41.1
37.2 (*5)
24.8 (*5)
32
h
Submarine
Soryu/29SS
3000t-class
2000t-class
Type 212CD
Attack-class
Type 212NFS
Kilo (*9) Lada Amur
SAAB-DAMEN
A26
Type 039B
i
Number of batteries
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
j
Number of battery strings
(stern+bow *6)
28+28
12+12
8+8
12+12
16+12
0+24
10+15
12+12
8+8
8+12
8+12
8+8
k
Number of battery groups in a battery string (*7)
12
8
8
12
12
8
12+8
8
8
12
8
12
l
Energy of batteries [MWh]
58
15.2
10.1
6.8
11.9
3.8
9.9
7.9
5.3
8.9
4.0
6.1 *8
*1 Guideline of (f) and (j ) is 400V< (f) x (j) < 800V considering maximum and minimum voltage of battery cell.
*2 SAMSUNG SDI 111Ah cell and 24-cell module
*3 SAFT VL56E cell and 16-cell module
*4 SAFT VL56E cell and 24-cell module
*5 Kokam SLPB160460330 cell and 14-cell module
*6 Stern and bow batteries are placed under diesel generator and torpedo sections, respectively for submarines except Soryu/29SS.
*7 As battery groups and battery strings are directly and parallel connected, respectively.
*8 As diameter of hatch for exchange of WB-LYP 10000AHA is more than 780mm whitch is too big for crew, WB-LYP 10000AHA may be exchanged through hatches on the diesel and torpedo sections with 6-7m in length. Considering that footprint of WB-LYP 10000AHA is 1.32 times bigger than GS-YUASA LIB, that Type 039B is 80% smaller than AIP-Soryu MKI and that Type 039B is tear-drop type double hull structured, Type 098 may equip with ca. 200 battery groups at most (half of Soryu MKI). So, Type 039 equips two batteries of 6.1MW which considerably smaller than reported [18].
*9 Rubin Design Bereau of Russia is considering LIB – Kilo-class. Kilo-class has two batteries consist of 240 LABs. Estimated arrangement of LABs is 8 x 15 and 12 x 10 under torpedo and diesel sections. Arrengement of LIBs is expected to be the same.
*10 Estimation by using Panasonic NCA103450 cel, SAMSUNG SDI 111Ah cell, SAMSUNG SDI E-30] and its module E3-0903. In the 4 layered battery group (d=4), energy will be 80% of Table 4 (l).
*11 Size (D540mm x W270mm x H1200mm) and volumetric energy (80kWh/L) are assumed for LABs.

References



[3] Estimation based on [2]

Capacity [Wh/kg] = 94Ah x 3.68V / 2.01kg = 173Wh/kg

[5] M8994 E2 module 

[6] E3-M090 module 
A comparison between M8994 E2 module (94Ah) vs E3-M090 module (111Ah) suggests same dimension of 94Ah and 111Ah.








LT-LYP(http://www.enelt.com/?id=530) is also possible cell for submarine, but, its volumetric energy density is lower (93Wh/kg) than LT LFP72 (130Wh/kg).

[15] Hatch diameter range of 650-711mm is based on the followings: i) DSRV’s ( Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle’s) and SRC (Submarine Rescue Chamber’s) can accommodate hatches up to 28 inches (=711mm) in diameter [reference here], page 698, ii) diameter of small hatch of Japanese submarine are 650mm, and iii) Japanese is smaller than Westerner.


[17] https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_039A_submarine Type 039B Length 77.6m, Beam 8.4m, AIP, crew 36, submerged displacement 3600, double hull structure. 039B (upgraded)

The battery pack consists of 960 pcs of the WB-LYP10000AHA cells making the total energy of 31MWh.”

[19] From the pictures and perspective of battery section in Kilo-class submarine, size of LAB (D=ca.300mm, W=ca.550mm) and number of battery group (n=8) were estimated. And sizes of LIBs for Kilo, Lada and Amur-class are assumed to be same as LABs.



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