April 5, 2015

Chinese Type 093A or 093G SSN armed with YJ-18 Carrier Killer Missiles

What may be 3 Chinese Type 093A/093G SSN or SSGN submarines. An obviously blurry photo of a clarity far below military satellite standards. Nothing as clear as "reading a car's number plate". 
What may be a Chinese 093A/093G SSN or SSGN submarine with a vertical launch system with two types of missile [?] and pump jet propulsion.
Probably one of China's older model Type 093 "Shang" class SSNs.
Depiction of a Klub-Sizzler submarine launched missile which may be similar to China's YJ-18 anti-ship missile.

Ecns of China reported April 3, 2015 a new version of China's Type 093 (NATO "Shang class") SSN. The new version is variously named Type 093A or 093G. The ability of 093A/093G to mount vertically launched YJ-18 anti-ship missiles may cause the 093A/093G to be called an SSGN. There  seem to be no reliable photos of the YJ-18.

If the longer length and other differences of the Type 093A/093Gs are accurate it is possible China may eventually rename them Type 095s. The 095 is expected to feature unobservable features including an advanced reactor, lower acoustic signature and the visible VLS tubes (with VLS noted on the 093As/093Gs).

Just a note of caution that the 093A/093G reports seem to rely on 3rd or 4th hand Taiwanese sources in the information loop. The message that 093A/093Gs with their missiles are "carrier killers" of course worries the US. A message that directs more US military attention weapons-money-opportunities to Taiwan is beneficial to Taiwan. Taiwan definitly needs US help to pressure some country to help Taiwan build or acquire four new submarines.

Application of the term "carrier killer" to the YJ-18 should not imply that the YJ-18 is a new threat. There may be many similarities between the 093A/093G's YJ-18 anti-ship missile and the BrahMosYakhont or Klub-Sizzler. Significantly the Klub-Sizzler has already been fitted by Russia to China's 12 Russian built Kilo class submarines. Now China is taking the evolutionary (no game-changing) step of fitting Klub equivalents (YJ-18s) to faster moving and longer submerged Type 093A/093Gs.

All this missile activity is not a major departure from conventional and nuclear propelled submarines pre-existing torpedos capabilities - with torpedos being able to "kill"/destroy carriers and other major warships.

The YJ-18 may also owe some design attributes to the YJ-12 "a supersonic Chinese anti-ship missile developed in the 1990s".

Comment - while the YJ-18 sounds like an awesome weapon the hierarchical autonomy, tactics and efficiency of their human operators are very important. The human element is often mistakenly disregarded. How smoothly the YJ-18s fit into China's broader network of anti-shipping sensors is also a consideration.

The report from Ecns of China, April 3, 2015 has the string http://www.ecns.cn/military/2015/04-03/160484.shtml and is below  .

[Chinese PLA] "Navy to get 3 new nuclear subs

2015-04-03 09:07China DailyEditor: Si Huan
Three cutting-edge nuclear-powered attack submarines have been manufactured and will soon be commissioned by the Chinese navy, according to media reports.

China Central Television showed a satellite picture earlier this week of three submarines anchored at an unidentified port [see first picture above - very blurry], saying the vessels are China's most advanced Type-093G nuclear-powered attack submarines, just completed by a Chinese shipyard and a waiting delivery.

With a teardrop hull, the submarine is longer than its predecessor, the Type-093, and has a vertical launching system, the report said.

Another article carried by the People's Liberation Army navy's website said the Type-093G's wing-shaped cross-section [?] is designed to improve speed and mobility as well as reduce noise, and that the vertical launcher is capable of delivering the country's latest YJ-18 supersonic anti-ship missile.

China established its nuclear-powered submarine force in the early 1970s but had never shown it to the outside world until 2009, when two nuclear submarines took part in a parade marking the 60th anniversary of the PLA navy's founding.

The Type-093G is reported to be an upgraded version of Type-093, China's second-generation nuclear-powered attack submarine, which entered active service several years ago.

Cui Yiliang, editor-in-chief of Modern Ships magazine, said: "Though China was comparatively late in developing advanced nuclear-powered submarines such as the Type-093G, we used a lot of the most cutting-edge technologies and equipment on our submarines, enabling them to compete with their foreign counterparts."

He noted that China has researched the vertical launching system for many years and has installed it on other submarines and surface ships.

"Judging from the vessel's design, the Type-093G should have strong anti-ship and counter-submarine capabilities," said Yin Zhuo, a senior expert with the navy. "It is also likely to be upgraded with the capability of striking land targets with cruise missiles in the near future."

He added that the navy has formed a reliable logistics system for its nuclear submarine fleet.
Liu Jiangping, a naval equipment expert in Beijing who had served in the PLA navy for decades, said the vessel's vertical launching system enables the submarine to launch long-distance strikes from underwater, increasing the vessel's survivability in war.

The strategic force of the PLA navy now has about four nuclear-powered Type-094 ballistic missile submarines, up to six Type-093 nuclear-powered attack submarines and about three old Type-091 nuclear-powered attack submarines, CCTV quoted foreign media reports as saying.[note the report of six 093's may be Taiwanese deception. Wikipedia (see its sidebar) based on US DoD reports reported only 2 active 093s in June 2014. Wikipedia's sidebar agrees there are 3 active 091s however ].  

Another report, from Deagel.com, last updated February 4, 2015, goes into much more detail on the YJ-18 anti-ship missile. The similarity to BrahMosYakhont or Klub-Sizzler in function is obvious. The report's string is http://www.deagel.com/Anti-Ship-Missiles/YJ-18_a002884001.aspx :

"YJ-18 [Missile]


The YingJi-18 (YJ-18 or Eagle/Hawk-18) is a vertically-launched, long-range, supersonic, sea-skimming anti-ship missile designed by China to kill US Navy's Aegis-equipped destroyers or its equivalents provided to Japan, South Korea or European Navies. The YJ-18 is planned for deployment by the newest People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Type 052D class destroyers and subsequently may be incorporated into existing destroyers and submarines as part of a modernization effort. Its guidance system consists of an advanced inertial navigation, maybe backed by the Beidou Chinese GPS, plus an active radar seeker in the terminal phase. Besides, a built-in data link allows the carrier ship to update the target's location. The Aegis-killer missile existence was first reported in 2013 with an entry into service expected by 2014 or later.

The YJ-18 missile is equipped with a 300 kg high explosive (HE) warhead capable of taking out a destroyer-sized ship. The HE warhead can be replaced by an anti-radiation/electromagnetic pulse warhead that is said can take down up to 60 percent of the enemy ship's electronic systems at a range of 50 meters after detonating. After the vertical launch the missile's turbojet engine is capable of flying at a cruise speed of Mach 0.8 for about 180 kilometers after that point the warhead section separates and a solid rocket engine ignites allowing at a top speed of Mach 2.5-3 for about 40 kilometers. The missile can maneuver at 10G acceleration to avoid enemy interception by air-to-air or surface-air missiles. The missile design and performance is very similar to Russia's 3M54E [Klub-Sizzlerwhich may have been the template for the YJ-18."



Anonymous said...

I think pressure hulls of modern Chinese submarines are made of 980 steel (yield strength ca.800 MPa). "High Crack Propagation of Steel 980 Welded Joiont under Spectrum Load” (Chinese), http://image02w.seesaawiki.jp/d/e/doramarine/16dc6f08dbd1d96c.pdf,

Page 5, “ 2.2 Fatigue Testing “Test material for high-strength structural steel submarine 980 steel welded joints. 980 steel (VHD402), yield strength σs> = 800MPa, China developed high strength, high toughness, can be welded with a submarine pressure hull.”

Page 5, Table 1 Chemical component (Steel and Weld for upper and lower rows respectively), Table 2 Mechanical Property (ibid).

Peter Coates said...

Hi Anonymous

Thanks for the document http://image02w.seesaawiki.jp/d/e/doramarine/16dc6f08dbd1d96c.pdf from Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering Department. Looking at that document Page 5, “ 2.2 Fatigue Testing" and Using this conversion MPa to psi, 800 MPa = 116,030 psi = HY-116.

In comparison looking at my January 20, 2015 article http://gentleseas.blogspot.com.au/2015/01/japan-offer-to-australia-soryu.html :
there is a brief look at http://www.mod.go.jp/trdi/data/pdf/G/G3111C.pdf where page 4, table 4.2.1 left column, seems to indicate the Soryu has Japanese naval steel measure NS80 which converts to 113,760 lbf/in2 or HY-114.

So assuming the translations and conversions are correct China uses HY-116 steel very similar to the Soryu's HY-114.

My January article goes onto discuss possible NS110 also used in the Soryu meaning 110kgf/mm2 proof stress converting to 156,414 lbf/in2 or HY-156 which using linear claculations allow the Soryu an operating depth of just over 600 metres. Who knows?



Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

Chinese submarines are drastically improving. They used to be clearly inferior to US or Japanese submarines, but now, the situation is rapidly changing. Some people do not understand situation yet and are too optimistic. But latest Chinese subs may be superior to Collins subs at least in hull strength. We should not waste time.

980 and NS 80 are nearly same steels, because their chemical components and mechanical strengths are very resemble. G3111C.pdf, page 3, table 3 chemical composition (NS80E) 4.2.1 left column.

I agree with your opinion on operation depth. Noone knows operation or crush depth except designers, because so many factors (steel strength, weld strength, hull structure, etc) affect hull. Also, detail knowledges on design and computer technology are required to calculate pressure distribution on hull. Third person can image the depth based on some measures like steel and weld strength.


Peter Coates said...

Hi Anonymous

I'm taking account of these steel strength comments at my article:

Submarine Steel Strength Implications, April 8, 2015, at http://gentleseas.blogspot.com.au/2015/04/submarine-steel-strength-implications.html