March 6, 2018

Russian SSN & SSK Details from Russian Sub Expert

Pete Comment: the following Russian submarine descriptions probably started out being in Russian, then translated into French, then English. Pete has further translated some comments into more correct English.

Now follows Anonymous comments on Russian SSNs (including Husky) and SSKs (including the Kalina class):


No new SSN construction is going on. Some SSNs may be in the process of being modernized in the Zvezdochka shipyard in the Severodvinsk military-industrial (closed to foreigners) area, but the first unit will not come back into service until 2019. These may be:
-  less than 10 Akula Project 971 SSNs (see Anonymous's French language
   article then right-click mouse to
   "Translate to English" or your chosen language ) and
 -  two Sierra I Project 945s (submarines Carp and Kostroma 

Two Sierra II Project 945As are active in Russia's Northern Fleet. They are:
-  Nizhniy Novgorod (B-534) overhaul completed in 2008, and
-  Pskov (B-336) overhaul completed in 2015.

A new SSN project, in English "Husky" (in Russian "KHASKI" or "Khaski") was interpreted in the English language media in July2017 as being an eventual three category (SSN, SSGN and SSBN) project.

But it is probably more accurate to say Husky is an SSN project, as Yasen SSGNs and Borey/Borei SSBNs will continue to be new-built for years and not replaced for two or three decades. 

Husky concept artwork. Pete comment: Still some believe a Husky derivative will augment or replace the Yasen SSGNs, on account of the derivative having around 26 bow-mounted VLS (as in guesstimate artwork above courtesy Strategic Culture Foundation). But at the some time Virginia SSNs have/will have between 12 (in Blocks I-IV) to 40 (Block V onwards) vertically launched Tomahawk missiles without being called SSGNs. Perhaps Russia will merge the SSN and SSGN designations as will happen in the US (once all 4 US Ohio class SSGNs are retired).

An initial Husky SSN concept design by Malakhit may appear later this year (2018). Malakhit Design Bureau announced on December 9 2017 that Husky construction could begin in 2020. Contradicting the 2020 start is information the first Husky may be laid down at Sevmash by 2024. see


Following commissioning of 6 Kilo Project 636.3 submarines into the Black Sea Fleet (BSF) 6 more are under construction for Russia's Pacific Fleet. Deliveries are from 2019 and 2022. see

The single hulled Lada Project 677 sideview (Artwork courtesy soumarsov(dot)eu) Note that it appears to have an  older style cruciform tail rather than a modern X-plane tail.

The much delayed Lada Poject 677 is still an uncertainty and with it the export development, the P
roject 1650 (or 677E) and 950 Amur-class . [Pete comment: On the Rubin Design Bureau website it indicates Ladas and Amurs are Rubin projects].

"Commissioned" but still testing of Lada 1 first of class St Petersburg (B-585) continues. Lada 2 Kronshtadt (B-586) laid down in 2005! is due for commissioning in 2019. Lada 3 Velikiye Luki (B-587) is due for commissioning in 2021. Two more could be ordered in 2018. see [Pete comment: Ladas are single hulled unlike the double hulled Kilos].

[Pete Comment -  But there is no reliable information that efficiently working AIP has been developed for Ladas and future spinoff Amurs - which is why Russia is still building non-AIP Kilos] 

Kalina [is also a Rubin project but also lacking the critical AIP technology] - 
She should have an "Underwater Range Extender (URE)" [Does that mean AIP and/or Lithium-ion Batteries?]. But the design process will be finished in the 2018 – 2025 equipment program. No Kalina is  laid down is announced. see [Pete comment: China is interested in acquiring some Kalinas as technology transfer examples of Russia's latest conventional submarines - when Kalinas are finally available..

PS: all the submarine Project links (above) have a date based “Bibliographie” eg. Kalina has this.



Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

Diesel fuel reforming type AIP and LIBs have developed [2, 3] for next generation non-nuclear submarine [1]. In my opinion, the next generation non-nuclear submarint [1] will equips with i) VNEU (Russian AIP using hydrogen from diesel reforming) [2] , ii) Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)-LIBs [3,4] and iii) next generation diesel 12ДМ-185 (12DM-185) [5]. But, application of permanent magnet synchronous motor is not clear.


(In the Russian Federation, they have created the newest power plant for submarines of the 5th generation "Kalina", 28/Jun/2016, RIA Novostiхтмл)
The creation of an air-independent power plant (VNEU) for non-nuclear submarines of the fifth generation of the Kalina project has been completed, the report of the Rubin Central Design Bureau (CDB) for 2015 says.---

VNEU of Russian development is fundamentally different from foreign analogs by the method of hydrogen production. In order not to carry hydrogen of high purity on board a submarine, the unit provides for the production of hydrogen in the amount of consumption by reforming diesel fuel.

(TsKB "Rubin": lithium batteries for submarines have been tested)
The general director of the enterprise, Igor Vilnit, said that a full cycle of tests of lithium-ion batteries for non-nuclear submarines was carried out.

[4] One of drawbacks of LIBs is thermal run away at low temperature. But, LFP and LTO (Lithium Titanate) are excellent stability at low temperature. These LIBs are suitable for operation in cold regions.

“Ural diesel-engine plant introduced a new generation diesel engine - DM-185”
DM-185 is alternatives of DM-210, problematic diesel is used for Yasen or Borey-class, and its features are as follows.
The total power of diesel engines DM-185: 0,7-4,9 MW;
Rotational speed corresponding to the total power: 1500, 1800, 1900 rpm;
Specific fuel consumption: not more than 204 g / kWh;
Specific consumption of oil in fumes: 0.4 g / kWh;
Specific gravity: 3.7-4.7 kg / kW Resource: 40000-70000 hours Cylinder power: 120-234 kW.

12DM-185 seems to correspond to MTU, but, where its turbochagers come from?


Peter Coates said...

Thanks Anonymous

I'll use your information in an article late next week.



Anonymous said...

Hi Pete (continued from coment on 8/3/18 6:02 PM)

Judging from size and dimension, V12DM-185(V12ДМ-185) seems to be suitable for submarine diesel generator. Asumming 20% of power reduction by exhaust resistance for submarine use and 0.8 of power factor, electric output of DM-185 diesel generator at 1900rpm may be 1152kW (1.8MW x 0.8 (power reduction) x 0.8 (power factor) ) comparative representative western diesel generators such as MTU.



Anonymous said...

Hi Pete (continued from 10/3/18 12:22 AM)

V12ДМ-185 (DM-185) is briefly illustrated in L6 and V12 DM-185s may be modified for submarine diesel generators.

DM-185 is alternative of ДМ-21( DM-21), the problematic diesel backup used for Yasen and Borey submarines, and its potential customers of the engine are the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, Brazil, India, China, South Africa) countries [1].

If DM-185 shows good performance and reasonable price, it will be very tough competitior against MAN or MTU diesels

"The engine was created to solve the problems that arise with the DM-21 engine," the source said. According to the representative of the company, now the DM-21 is operated on the rescue vessel Zvezdochka and is installed on the Yasen and Borey submarines.
He noted that in addition to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the potential customers of the engine are the BRICS countries.