October 26, 2015

Diagram - Inside the Soryu Submarine


"wispywood2344" has drawn and labeled this very useful diagram of the Soryu.  A larger version of the diagram is at http://blog.livedoor.jp/wispywood2344/others/Soryu_cutaway.svg
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Looking at the diagram:

-  The coloured sections (1 to 12) are within the pressure hull where the crew lives. The pressure hull is protected by the strongest steel - Japanese Naval Steel (NS110).  The outer line is the streamlined exterior hull (where components can tolerate higher water pressures) - protected by less high yield steel like NS80.

-  Torpedo Section 1. Here the Weapon Embarkation Hatch allows perhaps 10 x torpedos/missiles and perhaps 20 x mines to be slotted backwards and then neatly fitted into this section. Other mixtures of weapons are possible, up to 20 heavyweight torpedos and/or missiles.
  
-  Stirling Generator Section 9. The presence of Stirling AIP indicates this is a Soryu Mark 1 (see Soryu Table below, SS-501 to SS-510). See Soryu Table below. As a Mark 1 it retains lead-acid batteries (LABs).

-  LOx Tanks/Cold Box Section 10 these feed the Stirling Generators.

-  Adding Sections 9 and 10 together shows the great amount of space AIP takes up in the current Soryus. All this AIP equipment is also heavy (perhaps 150 tons) and also causes buoyancy problems as the LOx is expended. Stirling AIP is not useful high speed cruisinge because its AIP is low and nearly constant (eg. 240kW for Stirling AIP in Soryus). This AIP cannot be refueled during missions because it needs liquid oxygen (LOx) and kerosene which cannot be supplied by other ships.

-  Lithium-ion Batteries can fill some of the space previously used by AIP. Diesel fuel can be used in diesels to recharge LIBs. Diesel, unlike AIP LOx and kerosene, can be supplied by other ships.

-  S advised in Comments below that Japanese Ministry of Defence technical standards require that  240 cell modules are set in fore battery section (Section 5) and also in the aft battery section (Section 8). So S estimates that the location and arrangement of lead-acid battery cell modules in the Soryu considering the following factors: 
   i) hull size and structure (hull diameter and length, sound absorber and hull thickness, frame size)
  ii) amount of overhead space and aisle space for maintenance and installation of cell modules, and  iii) spacing between cell modules for electric wiring. In battery Sections (5 and 8 in Diagram), 20 lines x 6 cell modules are set in the starboard side and port side of a central maintenance aisle over the keel. So the mathematics are 2 (sections) x 2 (sides) x 20 (lines) x 6 (cell modules) = the 480 cell modules Total.

In 27SS and 28SS which may be prototypes of 29SS and SAE concept, Lox tanks and cold box (10) will be exchanged by additional LIBs. Along with equipment of LIBs, following consideration will be needed: i) improvement of electric propulsion system including motors, ii) improvement diesel electric and snorkel generation system, iii) improvement of safety and electric wiring system for higher current and voltage.

The Soryus are built in Kobe, Japan with builds alternating between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) each year. See Soryu Table below.

MHI built Soryus can be distinguished from KHI built Soryus by the shape of bridge door near hydroplane on the sail


MHI built Soryus have rectangular doors with sharp corners (see photo above)
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 KHI built Soryus have doors with round corners. This is significant for we Soryu spotters because one can determine from which shipyard a Soryu is made even when the numbers/Soryu identities have been blacked out.

Soryu Table

SS
No.
Building
No.
Pennant
No.
Name/Namesake
LAB or LIB & AIP *
Laid Down
Laun
-ched
Commi-ssioned
Built
By
16SS
8116
SS-501
Sōryū (そうりゅう) / Blue Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2005
Dec 2007
March
2009
MHI
17SS
8117
SS-502
Unryū (うんりゅう) / Cloud Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2006
Oct 2008
March
2010
KHI
18SS
8118
SS-503
Hakuryū (はくりゅう) / White Dragon
LAB + AIP
Feb 2007
Oct 2009
March
2011
MHI
19SS
8119
SS-504
Kenryū (けんりゅう) / Sword Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2008
Nov 2010
March
2012
KHI
20SS
8120
SS-505
Zuiryu (けんりゅう) / Sword Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2009
Oct 2011
March
2013
MHI
22SS
8122
SS-506
Kokuryū (こくりゅう) / Black Dragon
LAB + AIP
January 2011
Oct 2013
March
2014
KHI
23SS
8123
SS-507
Jinryū (じんりゅう)/ Benevolent Dragon
LAB + AIP
Feb 2012
Nov 2014
March
2016?
MHI
24SS
8124
SS-508
Sekiryu 
/Holy Dragon
LAB + AIP
2013
Nov 2015
2017
KHI
25SS
8125
SS-509
?
LAB + AIP
2014
2016?
2018
MHI
26SS
8126
SS-510
?
LAB? + AIP
2015
2017?
2019
KHI
27SS
8127
SS-511
Soryu Mark 2 
LIB only
2016?
2018?
2020?
MHI
28SS
8128
SS-512
?
LIB only
2017?
2019?
2021?
KHI
29SS
8129
SS-513
LIB only
2018?
2020?
2022?
MHI







1AU?


 1st Australian class?

2023?
2026?
2029?



















- LAB = Lead Acid Battery.
- LIB = Lithium-ion Battery,
- AIP = Air Independent Propulsion (Swedish-Kockums designed Stirling engine)

Pete

7 comments:

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

According to NDS (Standard of Ministry of Defense), 240 cell modules are set in fore and aft batteries sections, respectively. So, I estimated location and arrangement of cell modules in Soryu considering following factors: i) hull size and structure (hull diameter and length, sound absorber and hull thickness, frame size), ii) overhead spacing and aisle for maintenance and installation of cell module, iii) spacing between cell module for electric wiring. In batteries sections (5 and 8 in figure), 20 lines consisting of 6 cell modules are set in starboard and port of the maintenance aisle on the keel, respectively.

In 27SS and 28SS which may be prototypes of 29SS and SAE concept, Lox tanks and cold box (10) will be exchanged by additional LIBs. Along with equipment of LIBs, following consideration will be needed: i) improvement of electric propulsion system including motors, ii) improvement diesel electric and snorkel generation system, iii) improvement of safety and electric wiring system for higher current and voltage.

Regards
S


Peter Coates said...

Hi S [October 28, 2015 at 12:05 AM]

Thanks. I have placed your comment in the text.

Just to check

- I interpret the battery cell total to be 480. That is 2 (sections (fore and aft)) x 2 (sides) x 20 (lines) x 6 (cell modules) = the 480 cell modules Total.

- I also assume we are still talking lead-acid batteries.

Regards

Pete

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

I think that there are a horizontal hatch between fore and aft batteries sections (between 5 and 6) and hatches on floors of officer’s accommodation (6) and mess/galley (7) under mid access hatch and that cell modules are exchanged through these hatches. Cell modules are moved on the aisles by using horizontal and vertical hydraulic jacks. As dimensions and weight of LIBs and LABs are nearly same, methods of exchange and move of cell s are same. If SAE 1000 concept is 6-8m longer than 29SS, it can load more LIBs.

LIBs submarine has superior performance in high speed situation and flexibility in operation compared with AIP submarine. AIP cannot correspond to situation which needs relatively high speed cruise and quick recharge, because output of AIP is low and nearly constant (eg. 240kW for Stirling AIP of Soryu). Stirling AIP needs liquid oxygen (LOx) and kerosene which cannot be supplied by other ships. But in case LIBs submarine, diesel fuel can be supplied by other ship. AIP is complementary system of diesel-electric generation/battery.

Regards
S

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

Today, 8th Soyru class submarine, SS508 Sekiryu (Holy Dragon which defends south) built by KHI was launched. Sekiryu is handed over to Japan Maritime Self Defense Force in March/2017. Building costs ca. 55.9 billion yen.

Regards
S

Peter Coates said...

Thanks S

SS-508 was launched right on schedule.

I will add "Sekiryu" to the Soryu Table.

Regards

Pete

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

I would like to add following reference to comment (October 28, 2015 at 11:11 PM)

Reference
According to NDS F 8001D “General rules of electric equipment for warship” 3.4.1 (2)”volume of equipment for submarine”, diameter of hatch is 635mm and that figure of bulkhead is oblong (965mm in long diameter, 501mm in short diameter) or circle (800mm in diameter) for submarine. Maximum weight of portable equipment for submarine is 40kg (20kg per person in transfer of equipment).

Regards
S

Peter Coates said...

Hi S [at November 4, 2015 at 11:42 AM]

Thankyou for your extra reference.

Regards

Pete