October 10, 2018

Saab A26 Submarine Specifications Compared with the Soryu's (especially AIP)

Picture of a Kockums Naval Solutions designed 4V-275R Mk III Stirling engine, licenced by Kockums to KHI. Four are on the Japanese Soryu Mark 1s (with air independent propulsion (AIP) and lead-acid batteries (LABs)) (Photo via https://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/dark_99_jp/39533734.html).
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The main value of the following table may be the specifications provided by Anonymous, in early October 2018, for the not yet launched Swedish Saab A26 submarine. The first A26 may be launched in 2020. Two are being built for the Swedish Navy and Saab wishes to sell more to Poland and the Netherlands. 

Submarine Type
A26 (not yet launched)
Soryu Mark 1s (AIP and LABs) 
 (launched 2004)
Length
66.1m long [6]
84m [8]
Beam
6.75m beam [6]
9.1m [8]
Displacement
1925 tonnes surfaced [3] [6]  
2,900 tonnes (surfaced) [8]
4,200 tonnes (submerged)
Crew
17 to 35 [6]
65  [8]
Weapons
533mm and 400mm torpedoes, mines [4] Also AUVs and ROVs [6]
533mm Type 89 torpedos, Harpoon missiles, mines [8]
Multimission Portal
>6m long [4]
>1.5m diameter [4]
no
Diesel engines
3 x 8PA4V200SM12
2× Kawasaki 1225/25SB  [8]



Stirling AIP Type of Engine
2? x new Stirling with low signature [1]
4 x V4... or 4V-275R MkIII
continual output (electrical)
 not yet known
rated electrical output (continual) 4 x 60kW = 240kW [2]
continual output (mechanical)
  not yet known
rated mechanical output (continual) is 1.25 x 60kW = 75kW.
4 x 75kW = 300kW mechanical output
120% output (2min) (electrical)
  not yet known
rated electrical output at 120% output (2min) is 4 x 72kw = 288kW [2]
120% output (2min) (mechanical)

1.25 x 72kW = 90kW
4 x 90kW = 360kW



Electrical Motor
1 x Jeumont Electric permanent magnet motor [5]
Kawasaki? SMC-8
Pressure hull steel
Strenx® 700 [7]


[1] The A26 will be fitted with new generation Stirling engines, on floating decks and more heavily insulated to have a much smaller acoustic footprint and more power than the previous V4-275R series used in Sweden’s Gotlands and Japan’s Soryus.
[2] Set by Japanese Standard for Ministry of Defense (NDS)
[3] a changeable figure - growing with increasing roles (and perhaps with an eye to the large sized submarine the Dutch want) - best measured in metric tonnes
[4] “Designing For Future Submarine Capability” by Gunnar Öhlund, SVP Marketing, R&D and Business Development Kockums AB http://www.sms1835.no/arkiv/2012-08-29%20Sea%20Power%20Seminar%20Kockums.pdf  page 7
[5] 1 x permanent magnet (PM) motor made by Jeumont Electric [here and here]
The information on cost components for the Saab A26s would depend on many technical and business negotiation parameters of course. Some parameters can be quantified but many of them might not be quantified and would remain confidential.
[6] Sweden’s Defense Materiel Administration FMV https://www.fmv.se/sv/Projekt/Ubat-typ-A26/A26-del-for-del/
[7] Pressure hull materials of A26 Strenx® 700 See Table on Submarine Matters may be same as “Weldox 700”. Both equivalent to US standard HY-100 (aka HY100). As Strenx® 700 is commercially available it is cheaper than military submarine use only pressure hull steels.

Next week estimated pricing data will be published, comparing A26s with Soryus and TKMS Type 212CDs.

Anonymous and Pete

October 9, 2018

Saab Offers A26s for Netherlands' Walrus Submarine Replacement Program

View A. Sideview of Dutch A26 concept (Image Saab via MarineSchepen.nl)
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On October 8, 2018 Anonymous reported regarding concept A26 submarines for the Netherland's (Dutch) Navy's Walrus submarine replacement program - along the lines:

Currently, Sweden's Saab and the Netherland's Damen have teamed up to offer a large concept submarine based on Saab's A26 [1].

The information on A26 may provide some insights into the concept submarine. It is likely:

1.  the pressure hull material: Strenx® 700 (proof strength, Rp0.2=690MPa).

     Using https://www.convertunits.com/from/psi/to/MPa this is equivalent to US measure HY100.
     Also see Table for Sweden's Weldox 700.
2.  Propulsion electric motor: PMSM by JEUMONT ELECTRIC (3.3MW)
3.  Four Stirling AIPs (60kW x 4 =300kW)
4,  Diesel generators: 2 x 12PA4 V200 SMDS by MAN Diesel & Turbo (total electrical output 
     2,128kW) [2]

[1] https://marineschepen.nl/nieuws/Details-voorstel-Saab-Damen-nieuwe-Nederlandse-onderzeeboot-010618.html At “a displacement of about 2900 tons, the design is slightly larger than the current Walrus-class submarine's [2,650 ton (submerged) displacement]. The concept submarine is currently about 73 meters long and has a diameter of about 8 meters. “





View B. Above is an artist's impression, of the propulsion components.
On top is the Stirling AIP motors and Diesels. 

On bottom the "tanks" for liquid oxygen (LOx) and Lithium-ion? Batteries. 
MarineSchepen.nl explains "All engines are equipped with a hood. This ensures noise reduction, but also a more pleasant working environment for the technicians. In the engine room it is a lot quieter and cooler." (Image Saab via MarineSchepen.nl)
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[2]  In View B. The length of diesel module seems to be about 4.5m long - a bit smaller than MTU 12V4000U83's length of 4.58m.




View C. Closeup sideview of Dutch A26 concept. "KOMBUIS" means Galley. (Image Saab via MarineSchepen.nl).
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Pete Comments


Saab and Damen have been pointing to a Walrus replacement concept since early 2015. "Kevin" has pointed to the strategic uses of Walrus submarines since 2015. 

Germany and probably France and Spain would also be offering concept submarines for the Walrus replacement program.

The Walrus upgrade program may mean the 4 Walrus submarines will remain operational up to mid 2025.

Anonymous and Pete

Different Weights and Prices of LIB and LAB Batteries on Soryu Submarines

On October 6, 2018 Anonymous commented (following Submarine Matters, October 5, 2018 article on the launch of the first large Lithium-ion Battery (LIB) submarine) along the lines:


As the length of the Lithium-ion Batteries LIB-Soryu (27SS) is the same as that of the preceding lead-acid batteries LAB-Soryus, the structure of the LIB-Soryus (27SS and the next 28SS) might be very similar to the LAB-Soryus. 

The major differences are:

1.  the large liquid oxygen LOx tanks and Stirling AIP on the LAB -Soryus will not be on the 
     LIB-Soryus. Instead the LIB-Soryus will have an extra 192 LIB modules (12 columns x 16 rows)
     to make up a total of 672 LIB modules. 672 was predicted in the Submarine Matters article of
     April 4, 2017.

2.  there will be a not easily quantified weight difference between LIB-Soryus and LAB-Soryus
     given:
     LIBs weigh 770kg per module and there are 192 extra LIB modules
     Compared to LABs weighing 880kg per module, and
     The heavy LOx, LOx tanks and Stirlig AIP will not be on LIB-Soryus
     [But extra sleeping accommodation and a toilet for women will be on LIB-Soryus.]

3.  The major prices increases of LIBs over LABs, with Totals of:
      -  US$97 million for the 672 LIB modules (at US$144,000 /module) on LIB-Soryus
      -  compared to US$13 million for 480 LABs (at US$27,000 /module) on LAB-Soryus.

Pete Comment: As LIBs for submarines become more common their unit and Total prices are likely to decline significantly.

October 5, 2018

Japan has Launched the World's First Large Lithium-ion Battery (LIB) Submarine - Table

Thanks to Anonymous for providing much of the following information on October 4, 2018.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) in Kobe, Japan on October 4th, 2018 launched the world's first large (full sized) submarine that utilises Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs). LIBs are an advance on the traditional lead-acid batteries (that have powered conventional submarines world wide for over 100 years). 

This new Japanese submarine has been given the name Auspicious Dragon (translatable as Oryū) [1]. 

More Detai

In this conventional "diesel-electric" submarine its diesel engines charge the batteries. Once the submarine is fully submerged these new Lithium-ion batteries can turn the electrical motor (then propeller) [for 8 days?] before recharging by diesels is required again.

This new Japanese submarine is of the Soryu class and carries submarine number 27SS (see TABLE below). Its pennant number which will be on its fin/sail when in port is SS-511. It began being built ("Laid Down") in 2015 and may be commissioned into the Japanese Navy in 2020. It weighs 2,900 tonnes (surfaced) and about 4,200 tonnes (submerged) and is 84m long. 

Unlike previous Soryu submarines it carriers no Stirling Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) equipment. Hence it does not suffer the weight/volume disadvantages of carrying two large AIP [40 tonne?] liquid oxygen (LOx) tanks and does not use dangerously explosive hydrogen gas in its AIP process. Instead it carries a greater tonnage of more efficient Lithium-ion Batteries for improved range (in nautical miles) and "endurance" measured in days fully submerged.

While AIP may be the best solution for short range missions (eg. Baltic nations in the Baltic Sea) AIP is not the most efficient solution for Japan with the mid-range (4,000 nautical mile round trip) missions that Japanese submarines often travel.


Other nations, like South Korea, China, France and Germany are experimenting with LIBs for full sized submarines and may launch such submarines within 3 to 15 years. These and other countries are very interested (China using covert methods) in how this new Japanese LIB submarine performs. 

Some very small mini-submarines (called Diver [or SEAL] Delivery Vehicles of around 5 - 10 tonnes) in some navies are already using LIBs. These mini-submarines are housed in dry deck shelters on much larger nuclear or conventional submarines.

On a related matter - Japan's Ministry of Defense is planning to appoint woman submariners [2] in 2023 to travel in this new submarine [and perhaps older submarines?]. New equipment on the new submarine (such as a womens' sleeping room and a toilet) is needed by law [3]. This overall increase in accommodation weight/space will partly impact the improvement in range/endurance achieved by LIBs in 27SS.

[1] http://www.sankei.com/west/news/181004/wst1810040017-n1.html
      [right click mouse to Translate from Japanese]

      [right click mouse to Translate from Japanese]

[3] Japanese Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health Part III Chapter IIV Cleanliness (Article 628)
      The employer shall install lavatories as provided by the following. “To be constructed separately
      for men and women."...“To provide one or more toilets for every 20 women or less working at the
      same time.”

TABLE for SORYU & Oyashio Program as at October 5, 2018 

SS
No.
Diesel Type
Motor
Build No
Name
Pennant
No.
MoF approved amount ¥
Billions FY
LABs, LIBs, AIP
Laid Down
Laun
-ched
Commi
ssioned
Built
By
8105 Oyashio
SS-590/ TS3608
¥52.2B FY1993
LABs only
 Jan 1994
Oct 1996
Mar 1998
 KHI
6SS-15SS
Oyashios 
10 subs
2 Toshiba motors
SMC-7?
8106
-8115
various
SS-591-600
¥52.2B per sub
FY1994-FY2003
LABs only
 15SS Feb
2004
15SS
Nov
2006
15SS
Mar 2008
 MHI
&
KHI
16SS
Soryu Mk 1
12V25/25SB
SMC-8
8116
Sōryū
SS-501
¥60B FY2004
LABs + AIP
Mar 2005
Dec 2007
Mar
2009
MHI
17SS
8117
Unryū
SS-502
¥58.7B FY2005
LABs + AIP
Mar 2006
Oct 2008
Mar
2010
KHI
18SS
8118
Hakuryū
SS-503
¥56.2 FY2006
LABs + AIP
Feb 2007
Oct 2009
Mar
2011
MHI
19SS
8119
Kenryū
SS-504
¥53B FY2007
LABs + AIP
Mar 2008
Nov 2010
Mar
2012
KHI
20SS
8120
Zuiryū
SS-505
¥51B FY2008
LABs + AIP
Mar 2009
Oct 2011
Mar
2013
MHI
No 21SS
No 21SS built
22SS
8121
Kokuryū
SS-506
¥52.8B FY2010
LABs + AIP
Jan 2011
Oct 2013
Mar
2015
KHI
23SS
8122
Jinryu
SS-507
¥54.6B FY2011
LABs + AIP
Feb 2012
Oct 2014
7 Mar 2016
MHI
24SS
8123
Sekiryū
SS-508
¥54.7B FY2012
LABs + AIP
KHI
25SS
8124
SS-509
¥53.1B FY2013
LABs + AIP
22 Oct 2013
12 Oct   2016
MHI
26SS
end of SMC-8s
8125
Shoryū
SS-510
LABs + AIP
2014
6 Nov 2017
Mar 2019?
KHI
27SS First
Soryu Mk 2
12V25/25SB 
diesel
first SMC-8B
motor
8126
Oryū
SS-511
LIBs only
2015
4 Oct
2018
Mar
2020?
MHI
28SS  Second
Soryu Mark 2
12V25/25SB
SMC-8B
8127
SS-512
¥63.6B FY2016
LIBs only
2016?
2018?
Mar 2021?
KHI
29SS First Soryu Mk 3
SMC-9?
8128
?
¥76B FY2017
LIBs only
?
?
2023?
MHI?
30SS Second Soryu Mk 3
12V25/31S
8029?
?
¥71.5B FY2018
LIBs only
?
?
2024?
KHI?
Table from information exclusively provided to Submarine MattersLABs = lead-acid batteries, AIP = air independent propulsion, LIBs = Lithium-ion Batteries. ¥***B = Billion Yen. MHI = Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, KHI Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation of Kawasaki Heavy Industries. 
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Technical Details

Drawing from advice from Anonymous on February 13, 2018  

The Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) provide various benefits such as:

-  a low indiscretion ratio (IR) [the lower the ratio of time spent at periscope depth snorting to time
   completely submerged]

-  due to faster charging of LIBs by the diesel engines

-  providing greater operational flexibility for the submarine 

-  silent [4 knots?] speed performance over a longer medium distance [?? nautical miles for 8
   days?] fully submerged 

-  slightly longer period [probably less than 3 hours?] at the maximum speed (around 20 knots).

LIBs have a greater average charge and discharge efficiency within 80% - 90% (see LIB sidebar) compared to lead-acid batteries which have a lower average of around 70% (see lead-acid battery sidebar). 

Anonymous and Pete