March 20, 2018

German Submarine Destroyed due to Captain Schlitt's Sh*t

What a way to go! :)

A colorful description a German sub toilet training. Captain Schlitt failed to read the user  manual properly.

Details of the WW2 sub concerned and its loss

March 19, 2018

Collins submarine HMAS Waller in anti-sub Exercise Ocean Explorer

Pete has added extra links, in red, to the following article. ABC's Defence Reporter Andrew Greene on Australian Collins' class submarine HMAS Waller, March 18, 2018, reports:

"Life on board a crowded Collins-class submarine 100 metres below the surface"

In recent weeks HMAS Waller has been taking part in Exercise Ocean Explorer to improve anti-air and anti-submarine warfare, as well as maritime operations aimed at ensuring shipping lanes are clear and safe.

This month's war games come against the backdrop of growing concerns over Beijing's military build-up in the South China Sea, and the potential for crucial trading routes to Australia to be cut off.
The increasingly crowded waterways to Australia's north present obvious dangers for any submarine or surface ship but Commander Lindsey insists he is not overly worried.

Their world is secretive, often dangerous and at any moment they could be deployed to the farthest corners of the globe to carry out deadly missions.
The men and women who serve on Australia's six Collins-class submarines provide one of the country's most vital pieces of "strategic deterrence" in an increasingly competitive and uncertain neighbourhood.
By the year 2030 the Australian Government is anticipating more than half the world's submarines will be operating in the Indo-Pacific, a maritime environment that is already getting very crowded.
In simple terms submarines provide four crucial roles for the Defence Force: covert surveillance; delivery of special forces personnel, anti-surface ship warfare and anti-submarine attack.
"The real, true capability of a submarine is that I don't have to announce (my) arrival in any place" says Commander Richard Lindsey, the Commanding Officer of HMAS Waller, one of the Collins-class fleet.
HMAS Waller Captain, Commander Richard LindseyPHOTO: Commander Richard Lindsey on the bridge of HMAS Waller. (Luke Stephenson, ABC)
"If you really want to get down to the baseline, it's about removing that threat, and that's my business".
Commander Lindsey is a veteran of the United Kingdom's nuclear-powered submarines but believes Australia's diesel-electric fleet is world class, and doesn't deserve its "dud-sub" reputation.
"The Collins platform that we see today … is nothing like it was 20 years ago and we need to understand that that platform is improved, and constantly improved throughout," Commander Lindsey says.
HMAS Waller rises to the surface of the ocean
"Any of those deployments or movements that I make, whether it be around Australia or anywhere else are well planned, well considered and I'm well briefed," he said.
"For me it's just about standard operating: well planned, well supported and making sure that we don't make mistakes."
No personal space, six-hour sleeps and months without sunlight
[More on HMAS Waller and Lieutenant Timms] Life as a submariner is full of difficulties and requires extreme resilience but the salaries are usually much higher than other military jobs.
Submariners can typically spend months away at sea, including long periods below the ocean surface without any natural light.
"The biggest challenges of living on a submarine are obviously space," Lieutenant Kaira Wansbury said, the only female crew member of HMAS Waller.
"I sleep, for example, with four of the guys in a small cabin and we only get to sleep six hours a time," the submarine's navigating officer said.
Having a cabin is considered a luxury on board a submarine, which can be at sea for up to 70 days at a time and is home to around 60 people.
Junior trainees sleep among the various torpedoes stored at the bottom of the submarine in an area of the boat which also doubles as a makeshift gym.
"It's not the life for everyone — it's definitely for a small group of people. It does take a bit of resilience," said Able Seaman Anthony Zdjelarevic, 28, a combat systems operator on HMAS Waller.

March 16, 2018

Pessimism Women Couldn't Stay on US Submarines Smashed

From Jennifer McDermott of Associated Press via Stars and Stripes, March 8, 2018, comes virtual proof “Retention of female submariners on par with men”. McDermott reports, in part:
PROVIDENCE, [Rhode Island, USA] - ...It has been eight years since the Navy lifted its ban on women in submarines. The chaos and disruption some predicted largely haven't materialized....
[Female] retention rates are on par with those of men — much higher than the Navy had anticipated, according to records obtained by The Associated Press.
And they want to be seen simply as "submariners," not "female submariners."...
The Navy began bringing female officers on board submarines in 2010; enlisted female sailors followed five years later.
By now, the first 19 female officers have decided whether to sign a contract to go back to sea as a department head, which keeps them on the career path for a submarine officer, or have chosen a different path. Five women signed. Fourteen women have either left the military, will soon leave or are serving elsewhere in the Navy, according to records requested by the AP.
That's a retention rate of 26 percent for the first female officers, just shy of the roughly 27 percent of male officers selected for submarine service in 2010 who signed a department head contract. The Navy had been looking for at least 15 percent for women.
Nine more female officers were picked for submarine service in 2010, but with the intention they would return to jobs in the supply departments on surface ships or ashore — a normal career path.
"You always want higher" numbers, said Adm. John Richardson, the chief of naval operations, but he is encouraged by the initial results and the growing number of female officer candidates who want to be submariners.
"I think if there was a sense it was not doing well, we wouldn't have those types of numbers," he said.
Richardson led the submarine force at the beginning of the integration, from late 2010 to 2012. At that time, some submarine veterans, wives of submariners and active-duty members were calling the change a mistake. The living quarters were too tight, there was little privacy and romantic relationships could develop, they feared.
Many now say that the transition went smoothly, with one major exception. Male sailors were prosecuted in 2015 for secretly videotaping female officers and trainees as they undressed on the USS Wyoming.
"They did court-martial the perpetrators. It wasn't laughed off, and that's a good thing," said retired Navy Capt. Lory Manning, director of government relations for the Service Women's Action Network. "I don't think, in general, it dampens the effort."
To address privacy, the Navy is retrofitting subs with extra doors and designated washrooms. Future subs will be built with the height, reach and strength of women in mind...
Sailors have in some cases organically changed their behavior to accommodate changing times. Some accustomed to sleeping in their underwear now don a robe or sweats to go to the bathroom, for instance, in case they encounter another gender in the hall.
"That goes for both sides. It's not that all females have to wear this and males can do whatever they want," Mattocks said. "It's just little things like that, having both genders in a small space. You figure out things you never would've thought of before."
One-fifth of submarine crews are integrated. It will take until about 2026 before a woman could be in command of a U.S. Navy submarine..."

Meanwhile Janine Asseln, a submarine officer in the German Navy has progressed even further. Not restricted to US Navy female logistics department positions, Janine is in the fighting/torpedoing arm of the submarine (as youtube above reveals). See Submarine Matters' August 11, 2015 article.


Report details reasons why Australian WW1 submarine HMAS AE1 sank/was lost

In late December 2017 Submarine Matters reported Australian submarine HMAS AE1 had been found after 103 years, in Papua New Guinean waters, just above Australia (see map below).

At the outbreak of World War I, AE1, was part of the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force sent to attack German New Guinea. AE1’s main roll was perhaps to guard against intervention of cruisers in Germany’s East Asia [Indo-Pacific] Squadron

Along with AE2, AE1 took part in the operations leading to the occupation of the German territory, including the surrender of Rabaul on 13 September 1914.

At 07:00 on 14 September, AE1 departed Blanche Bay, Rabaul, to patrol off Cape Gazelle with HMAS Parramatta. When she had not returned by 20:00 hours, several ships were dispatched to search for her. No trace of the submarine was found, and she was listed as lost with all hands. The disappearance was Australia's first major loss of World War.

Now technical reasons why AE1 was lost with all hands, have emerged. Papua New Guinea's PNG Industry News reveals, in part:

[March 14, 2018] A REPORT has detailed how the crew of Australian World War 1 submarine HMAS AE1 desperately attempted to save the vessel before it sank off the coast of the Duke of York Islands.

...AE1 suffered a catastrophic failure, the report found, identifying "a design failure, material failure, operator error or combinations thereof" as being responsible for the submarine's bow tipping forwards and down.

One of the submarine's twin props was not operating, which would've contributed to the crew's inability to slow or stop the downwards descent.

Once it began to gather speed, the sub's forward section imploded after the 100 metre mark, creating a shockwave that would have killed the crew of 35 instantly.

...the shockwave would have been like a "truck-bomb going off in the middle of the control room" and there was some comfort the men "didn't know what hit them" "...from the available evidence, it is clear that the crew met their end swiftly and did not die a slow, lingering death on the sea floor".

The submarine had its hydroplanes set to "hard to rise", which meant it was attempting to return to the surface. The report concluded this was a deliberate action. "Operated by a rack-and-pinion mechanism and designed to operate against maximum design speed, the planes could not have drifted into their current positions".

After ruling out various scenarios, the report found a "diving accident" was the most probable cause for the disaster. 

The crew had a lack of diving practice, and a mechanical defect to the starboard main engine clutch would have limited the power available to the submarine.

This provided a combination of circumstances that "would alone have been sufficient to lead to her loss", the report concluded.

In the report, Find AE1 recommends against any attempt to enter the hull as it is the crew's final resting place. It also warns that it is only a matter of time before treasure hunters and others will attempt to exploit the wreck or achieve fame by obtaining images.

Measures to prevent ships from anchoring, mooring or trawling in the area are recommended in the report, including installing a surveillance camera on nearby Mioko Island, as well as a permit system requiring permission from both Australian and Papua New Guinean authorities for any further activity involving the wreck..."  See the WHOLE PNG Industry News ARTICLE

HMAS AE1 sunk in Papua New Guinea's, Duke of York islands. (Map courtesy BBC)

HMAS AE1 in happier days. (Painting courtesy Royal Australian Navy).

Sensor image of AE1 on the seafloor.

Deep water photo of AE1 on the seafloor 300m down, far deeper than its approximately 100m crush depth.  (Image courtesy the Australian Government via the BBC).


March 15, 2018

Table Comparing Russian, German, French & Japanese Submarine Diesels

Since Submarine Matters' Submarine Propulsion Table - 1st Attempt Anonymous has made major progress in researching Russia’s submarine diesel information. Anonymous has put together the following Table which compares submarine diesels designed and produced by Russia, Germany, France and Japan and identifying the main companies involved.

The Russian informations is based on Russia’s Ural Diesel-Engine Plant company (UDMZ) data. Here is general information on UDMZ and more specific information, about its DM-185 diesel at [A] below. In Russian it is at

Anonymous has also located a large amount of information on Russian (LIB-AIP, surface ship/marine and non-marine) diesels which will be published on Submarine Matters over the next two weeks.

Table 1 Specifications of modern submarine diesels


Diesel Make

          UDMZ [A]
     MAN Diesel & 
Type Designation

L6DM-185 [A]
V12DM-185 [A]
No. of cylinders

Piston speed [1]
Rated speed [2]
Mechanical output
Cylinder capacity [4]
Mechanical output per unit capacity [5]
Electrical output [6]
Electrical output at snorting [7]

[1] Piston speed = Stroke x Rated speed / 30000

[2] Based on product catalog or data from this blog.

[3] Mechanical outputs of L6/ V12/ V16/ V20 DM-185 are 750-1400 / 1500-2400 / 2600-3750 / 3200-4000 kW. As bigger exhaust resistance in diesel for submarine result in lower output, 750 and 1500kW are expected to be mechanical outputs of L6 and V12 DM-185s, respectively.
Others are based on product catalog or data from this blog.

[4] Cylinder capacity = (Bore/2)^2 x Stroke x 3.14 / 1000

[5] Mechanical output per unit capacity = Mechanical output / (Cylinder capacity x No. of cylinder)

[6] Electrical output = Mechanical output x 0.8 (= power factor)

[7] Electrical output at snorting = Electrical output x 0.9 (= assumed figure based on [8]).


[A] According to Russia’s Ural Diesel-Engine Plant company (UDMZ)

The DM-185 series are multipurpose diesels. UDMZ regards forgein manuacturers, especially MTU, as competitors. Anonymous believes that DM-185s are going to be the standard diesel of Russian submarines.

“The Ural manufacturer of diesel engines hopes to squeeze out the market leaders and, possibly, to create a new brand with them in partnership”

“July 12 [2012?] at the Ural Diesel-Motor Plant (UDMZ, group of JSC "Sinara - Transport cars") opened a production complex for the production of diesel engines of a new generation - DM-185. The product was developed by a team of specialists from the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, the Ural Federal University, the German engineering company FEV and the design bureau of the Ural Turbine Plant (UDMZ was established in 2003 when the diesel engine complex of OJSC Turbomotor Plant was divided into JSC Sinara Transport Vehicles is included since 2010)."

From the specifications of DM-185s are as follows:

Engine type: L6 / V12 / V16 / V20
Rated power: 750-1400 / 1500-2400 / 2600-3750 / 3200-4000 kW
The diameter of the cylinder: 185 mm
Piston stroke: 215 mm
Cylinder power: up to 240 kW
Cylinder capacity: 5.776 liters
Piston speed: 13.6 m /s
Rated speed: 1500, 1800, 1900 rpm
Common Rail fuel equipment and the possibility of installing individual fuel injection pumps
Specific fuel consumption: not more than 200 g / (kWh)
Specific oil consumption: not more than 0.4 g / (kWh)
Emissions of harmful substances: EU IIIA; IMO2 (+); Tier 3
NOx emissions: no more than 7.2; 8.4; 6.4 g / kW * h
Emissions of particulate matter: not more than 0.2 g / kW * h
Warranty period: 1-3 years
Service life: 25-30 years


The latest diesel common rail fuel injection system, not yet fully tested, is intended for the Russian UDMZ DM-185 and the German MTU 12V4000 U83E.

The output of DM-185 is not bad, but an evaluation of its level of vibration has not been released. If DM-185 shows good anti-vibration performance, it will be a very strong competitor against German or French diesels.

[Pete Comment - As indicated on the Table, Japanese Kawasaki diesels have, by far, the highest mechanical and electrical outputs. An arrangement of four of these Kawasaki diesels would be more suitable for Australia's Future Submarine (SEA 1000) than a problematic six to eight lower powered MTU or MAN diesels.]

Russia's UDMZ multipurpose (including submarine) DM-185 diesel engine. (Photo courtesy International Trading House WTH Souztrade at