May 18, 2017

Revised Table of Developers of LIBs and LABs for Submarine


Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) for submarine use is not a Japanese monopoly. Other countries are developing LIBs for submarine, including European, South Korean, US, Russian, Indian and Chinese.

The world LIB development market is very complex with:

-  major companies supplying batteries to other companies for resale

-  various types of joint ventures between companies, and 

-  companies developing batteries for civilian uses (eg. cars) that also may decide to break into
   the LIBs for submarine market.

-  Companies already supplying Lead-acid Batteries (LABs) for submarine also developing LIBs for

Anonymous has heavily revised the TABLE and footnotes.

Table List of Submarine LAB/LIB Suppliers

LAB for subamrine
LIB etc

Non submarine
Nuclear and diesel submarines [12]

Space applications [11]
No data
Exide Technology
U205,U206, U209, U212; Dolphin, Scorpene, Walrus, Kobben, Näcken, Västergötland, Gotland, UIa, TR 1700, Agosta, Daphne, Redoutable, Rubis, Triomphant [2]
Onyx™ M70 Series LIBs use lithium lithium cobaltaite (LCO)

No data
Western type submarines: U209/U214/Scorpene/Agosta/Daphne
Eastern type submarines: Romeo/ Foxtrot/ Kilo
Design development has been done also for classes U206, U212, Vastergotland(A17)(A19).
Nickel cobalt manganese oxide
(NCM), lithium iron Phosphate (LFP)[4]
No data
HBL Power Systems Ltd.
12.391 kWh to 40.300 kWh [5]
Kilo, Sorpene [6]
No data
Underdevloping [7]
Sunlight Systems
Western type submarines: U206, U209, U212, U214, U209P, U210, Scorpène, Agosta, 6YOH, Sauro, Walrus, Kobben
Eastern type submarines: Romeo, Foxtrot, Kilo [8]
LiSO2 batteries [10]
Radio sets, Mines, Locator beacons, Anti tank weapons, Night vision equipmen
GS Yuasa
Oyashio, SotyuMKI
Lithium manganese oxide (LMO)
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA)
Lithium-titanate (ITO)
Lithium-titanate (ITO)
Western type submarines
U206, U209, U212, U214, U209P, U210, Scorpène, Agosta, 6YOH, Sauro, Walrus, Kobben
Eastern type submarines
Romeo, Foxtrot, Kilo
Lithium lithium cobaltaite (LCO) [3],

Energy density, 68, 84Wh/kg etc [9]
No data
Lithium polymer batteries for military use  (114-168Wh/kg) [13]
Lithium polymer batteries ?
No data
No data
Kilo uses Saft (Fr).
No data
Kalina submarines [14]  in collaboration with China
How about Saft?[15]

Exide Technology supplys OEM-LABs to other battery manufactures.

EnerSys, EverExceed , Exide Technology, HBL Power Systems Ltd., and Sunlight Systems are the major lead-acid battery  vendors in the market. Companies, such as GS Yuasa, Saft, Kokam, Arotech, and Toshiba, are aggressively developing Li-ion batteries for submarines and investing in R&D to reduce the cost and match the LAB specifications for the submarines.
The report also states countries, such as Japan, China, and Russia, are focusing on the Li-ion battery technology for the submarines. Russia is also planning to develop Li-ion battery technology for Kalina submarines in collaboration with China.

[3] Data in 2005

HBL is the largest defence battery manufacturer in India. All the products have been designed, developed and manufactured based on in-house technology. The Company supplies batteries for a wide range of applications - fighter aircrafts, helicopters, transport aircraft, submarine propulsion, light weight and heavy weight torpedoes, battle tanks, missiles and artillery fuzes among others.The Company has recently secured approval for Kilo class submarine battery and approval process for Scorpene class submarine is at an advanced stage of completion.

For many years, we had been asked why HBL did not make Lithium Ion batteries. We have now initiated a plan to manufacture prismatic Lithium Ion cells and batteries for specialized applications - not for consumer products. The project is likely to be implemented in the near term.

The design and development of more than 25 different cell types and the delivery of 60 battery shipsets to navies worldwide are the strongest evidences for our expertise and cumulative experience in the submarine battery sector. Indicatively, we have manufactured submarine batteries for: Greece, Italy, Egypt, Germany, Fance, Ukraine, Pakistan, Peru, Sweden, Poland, South Africa, Portugal, Korea, Netherlands, Equador

Energy density is 84Wh/kg for Ion’ Drive 630 (26kWh), 68Wh/kg for Ion’Drive® Motive 24 V 410 Ah

The most commonly lithium batteries used are manufactured based on Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO2) and Lithium-Ion technology. More specifically, LiSO2 batteries are constructed of a Lithium (Li) anode, a Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) cathode and their electrolyte is made of Acetonitrile in combination with Lithium Bromide.
(Radio sets, Mines, Locator beacons, Anti tank weapons, Night vision equipmen)t

EnerSys is the leading global supplier of lithium-ion batteries for space applications where space heritage, innovation, and a proven delivery track record come together to produce market-leading batteries.

Nominal capcity (160Ah), votage (20-29.4V) and weight (28kg) mean energy density (114-168Wh/kg)

"In December 2014, TsKB Rubin completed the research work" Kalina-Navy "as a result of which the advanced design of a promising multipurpose non-nuclear submarine with air-independent power plant (VNEU) and a lithium-ion battery (LIAB) was executed in accordance with the tactical and technical task of the Russian Defense Ministry," said Shlemov.

[Translated from Russian] In April of [2017?], a seminar-presentation of developments and products of SAFT (France) under the name "Lithium-ion power systems for large underwater vehicles" was held at the St. Petersburg State Maritime Technical University. From the Russian side, specialists from a number of interested organizations took part in the seminar, and from the French side SAFT representatives Bertrand Dotfey, sales director of the Cosmos and Defensive Systems division and Alain Coadou, manager of the new defensive systems, made a presentation.

Pete Comment: China also appears to be developing LIBs for submarine. See “EverSpring” of China, covered in a Submarine Matters' article of February 2, 2016.

Mainly Anonymous and some small comments from Pete

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

Logically speaking, if a certain country tries to maintain region superiority by diesel submarine, it should prepare LIBs or AIP/LIBs propulsion system, because India, SK, China and Russia are developing LIBs or AIP/LIBs submarines.