September 26, 2016

Russia's 3 Recent SSBN Types & Warheads - SSBN Program 1

Diagram 1. Russian submarines (Artwork courtesy pinterest(dot)com) much larger here.

 For Russian submarine Diagram 1:
-  At top of is the retired Typhoon class (48,000 tons (submerged), 175m long, 20 RSM-52 Sturgeon
   SLBMs). 
-  Second from bottom a Delta IV 667BDRM "Delfin" (18,200 tons (submerged), 167m, 
   16 R-29RMU Sineva SLBMs).
-  Bottom is a current/being introduced Borei/Borey class (24,000 tons (submerged), 170m,
   16-20 RSM-56 Bulava SLBMs).

Russia’s strategic nuclear missile forces, including SSBNs, have the highest priority. The SSBN program has moved from:

- disruption with the collapse of the Soviet Union from the early 1990s, with attendant plunge in
  funding, cessation of patrols, and related loss of design, managerial and construction experience

- to gradual rebuilding since 2010.

Since the 1970s Russia's SSBN program relied on the 43 Delta class (total Is, IIs, IIIs and IVs) built. About ten Delta IIIs/IVs are still in use.:

From the 1980s to 2000s Russia temporarily deployed six huge Typhoon class. Their profligate use of high cost Titanium and large size made them unsustainably expensive to build and operate within Russia's limited defence budget. The Typhoon class suffered short service (on average launched in mid 1980s but began to be withdrawn from service from the mid 1990s).


Diagram 2. The Borei/Borey SSBN
---

From the 2010s Russia's submarine budget and organisation have settled down sufficiently to introduce the Borei class submarines (Diagram 2. above) mounting 16 new Bulava SLBMs. The Boreis will steadily replace the Deltas.

First of class Borei K-535 Yuriy Dolgorukiy (Diagram 2.was launched in 2008 and commissioned 2013. Two more Boreis have been commissioned, which now serve in the Pacific Fleet (out of Vilyuchinsk SSBN Base). Ten in all are envisaged, possibly with the final seven (Borei "II" class) mounting an increased 20 Bulava SLBMs). 

Some Bulava SLBM features are similar to the Topol-M ICBM, but the Bulava been developed both lighter and more sophisticated with comparable range, similar CEP, high maneuverability and similar warhead configurations. Bulava has a declared START throw weight of 1150 kg to 9,500km. Bulavas can be launched from an inclined position, allowing the Boreis to fire them while moving. Bulavas  have a low, harder to shoot down, flight trajectory, and due to this could be classified as quasi-ballistic missiles. Bulavas possess advanced defense capabilities making them resistant to missile-defense systems. If 6 MIRVs are carried this is more than the 3 or 4 carried on the Delta's R-29 SLBMs (see RUSSIAN SSBN/SLBM TABLE below).

See the New START site for maximum numbers of missiles + bombers = warheads numbers.

RUSSIAN SSBN/SLBM TABLE (modified from Russian sources. As at April 2016.)
Strategic submarines
Number of subs
Number of SLBMs and their type
Warheads
Total warheads
Project 667BDR (Delta III)
3
32 R-29R (SS-N-18)
3
96
Project 667BDRM (Delta IV)
6[1]
80 R-29RM (SS-N-23)
4
320
Project 941 (Typhoon)
1[2]
-
-
-
Project 955 (Borei/Borey)
3
48 R-30 Bulava
6
288





Total
12
160
4 (average)
704
[1] One submarine is in overhaul. Its missiles are not accounted for in the total.
[2] One Typhoon (first of class Dmitri Donskoi) was refitted as a Bulava missile testbed. It is not counted in the total number of operational submarines.
---
  
Pete

8 comments:

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

Yury Dolgorukiys show power of 60,000Ps and equips with MGK-6000 Sonar System consist of Bow Sonar, Flank Array Sonar and TACtical Towed Array Sonar [1]

The fourth Borey-Class is scheduled to be commissioned in this year. Russian submarine feet is not threat as before in Soviet era. The numbers of patrol is significantly reduced compared with Soviet Era, i.e., 102, 0, 10, 5 and 5 times for in 1984, 2002, 2008, 2011 and 2015.[2]

[1]SHIPS OF THE WORLD, 2016, November, No.848, “NEW SUBMARINES OF THE WORLD” by Editor, page 77.

[2]ibid,“OVERVIEW OF SUBMARINES TODAY” by Masao Kobayashi, page 74.
*snips*
Russia owns 38 nuclear submarines and 21 conventional submarines, and she ranks third in the world in the number of submarine possessing. However, most of nuclear submarine is a relic of the Soviet Era and maritime nuclear deterrent force is insufficient. 18 conventional submarines are Kilo-Classes being used for more than 22 years. In addition, as there is a financial issue due to price declines of crude oil, submarine force is in a crisis of significant reduction.
*snips*
As 3 Borey-Classes are under testing, 6 Delta IV-Classes and 4 Delta III-Classes are responsible for the nuclear deterrent of Russia. However, only 4 Delta IV-Classes are within service life of Russian submarine (=30years), and youngest Delta IV-Class has been used for 25years.
*snips*

Regards

Peter Coates said...

Hi Anonymous

Thanks for the information. Its difficult to know the status of the first 3 Borey class. They are listed as commissioned https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borei-class_submarine#Ships but they may not be ready to go on patrol.

Regards

Pere

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

MGK 600 sonar system Irtysh-Amfora [1]. which is expected to be superior to that of Virginia Class submarine [2], is made in Okeanpribor [3] which made almost 90% of the Russian submarine fleet armed with sonar systems. Passive sonar-system is adopted. In modern antisubmarine warfare, sonar-system is shifting from active to passive, but, Russian Navy affected by concept in the Cold War neglected passive-system and emphasized active-system. Then-president Medvedev ordered Okeanpribor to improve the situation on July/02/2009 [4].

Borey-Class is built by Sevmash, the largest ship-building complex in Russia. Sevmash announced Vladimir Monomakh had arrived at the place of permanent deployment - CATF Vilyuchinsk (Kamchatka) on September/26, 2016 [4].

[1] https://thewarmy.com/inf/atomnayapodvodnayalodka_proekta885_yasen-646/
[2]https://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/index.php?threads/about-the-new-russian-submarines-which-will-be-in-service-with-russia-in-2030.606552/
[3] http://www.vtp.ru/
[4]https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%9C%E3%83%AC%E3%82%A4%E5%9E%8B%E5%8E%9F%E5%AD%90%E5%8A%9B%E6%BD%9C%E6%B0%B4%E8%89%A6
[5] http://www.sevmash.ru/rus/news/2036-84004.html)

Regards

Anonymous said...


Before correction
Passive sonar-system is adopted. In modern antisubmarine warfare, sonar-system is shifting from active to passive, but, Russian Navy affected by concept in the Cold War neglected passive-system and emphasized active-system.

After correction
In modern antisubmarine warfare, sonar-system is shifting from active to passive, but, Russian Navy affected by concept in the Cold War neglected passive-system and emphasized active-system.

Peter Coates said...

Hi Anonymous

Thanks for the Borei sonar info. I'll add it to tomorrow's article "Advantages of the Borei/Borey - SSBN Program 2".

Regards

Pete

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete,

didn't the Soviets/Russians designed their SSBN with the ability to launch the payload even at home-port's pier with no need to dive to lauch-depth?


Regards,

Team Eurowussies

Peter Coates said...

Hi Team Eurowussies

Yes probably. Surfaced and stationary launch, should, in principle, be less problematic than dived launch.

Regards

Pete

Josh said...

@Anon

I don't believe that Soviet/Russian SSBNs were specifically designed for this but the North Fleet's base was sufficiently close to the US to allow this. Post Soviet Union I believe a number of Deltas (and maybe Typhoon) were maintained with missile crews dockside so they could launch without full crews and maintenance. This makes them unhardened static silos which is sub optimal but operating the missiles without actually having to sail and dive the sub was far less expensive from a maintenance and training point of view. The subs and missiles were paid for and it was a stop gap measure taken to maintain deterrence with platforms and weapons that were already paid for.

Cheers,
Josh