November 16, 2015

Look at Japan's Next Generation Submarine, LAB, LIB, Li-S/LSB Batteries

The latest Soryu, SS-508, "Sekiryu, Holy Dragon" being launched at KHI shipyard, Kobe, around  November 2, 2015 (Photo courtesy Sankei(dot)com sent by "Unknown" Thanks :)
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Soryu Table

SS
No.
Building
No.
Pennant
No.
Name/Namesake
LAB or LIB & AIP *
Laid Down
Laun
-ched
Commi-ssioned
Built
By
16SS
8116
SS-501
Sōryū (そうりゅう) / Blue Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2005
Dec 2007
March
2009
MHI
17SS
8117
SS-502
Unryū (うんりゅう) / Cloud Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2006
Oct 2008
March
2010
KHI
18SS
8118
SS-503
Hakuryū (はくりゅう) / White Dragon
LAB + AIP
Feb 2007
Oct 2009
March
2011
MHI
19SS
8119
SS-504
Kenryū (けんりゅう) / Sword Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2008
Nov 2010
March
2012
KHI
20SS
8120
SS-505
Zuiryu (けんりゅう) / Sword Dragon
LAB + AIP
March 2009
Oct 2011
March
2013
MHI
22SS
8122
SS-506
Kokuryū (こくりゅう) / Black Dragon
LAB + AIP
January 2011
Oct 2013
March
2014
KHI
23SS
8123
SS-507
Jinryū (じんりゅう)/ Benevolent Dragon
LAB + AIP
Feb 2012
Nov 2014
March
2016?
MHI
24SS
8124
SS-508
Sekiryu 
/Holy Dragon
LAB + AIP
2013
2 Nov 2015
2017
KHI
25SS
8125
SS-509
?
LAB + AIP
2014
2016?
2018
MHI
26SS
8126
SS-510
?
LAB? + AIP
2015
2017?
2019
KHI
27SS
8127
SS-511
Soryu Mark 2 
LIB only
2016?
2018?
2020?
MHI
28SS
8128
SS-512
?
LIB only
2017?
2019?
2021?
KHI
29SS
8129
SS-513
LIB only
2018?
2020?
2022?
MHI







1AU?


 1st Australian class?

2023?
2026?
2029?



















LOOK AT JAPAN'S NEXT GENERATION SUBMARINE

S commented here on November 14 and 15, 2015 about Japan’s Next Generation Submarine which may be 29SS (no LAB, no AIP, LIBs only). 29SS perhaps to be laid-down at MHI in 2018 for launch in 2020 (see 29SS in red in Soryu Table above). 

29SS is especially important for Australia because it will be the first new generation Japanese submarine that immediately precedes the submarine Japan is designing for Australia (“1AU” also in red on Soryu Table). This is if Australia chooses Japan.

Prior to the Next-Generation Japanese Submarine being built there are many standard planning and budgeting documents and procedure to be completed years beforehand. The following gives a glimpse of some of the procedures and issues with the next-generation 29SS. S’s specific comments with some English translation by Pete [S is invited to correct Pete’s translation if its meaning looks incorrect]:

"Changes of hull architecture as well as four major improvements (new torpedo, further reduction of vibration, new sonar system, and enhanced snorkel system) will be incorporated into the 29SS design.

[S has provided a summary of the 29SS project plan.] "It is expected.

- That 29SS will be nearly the same size as the Soryus [28SS and earlier – see Soryu Table] but 29SS will have longer compartments than current Soryus" 

[see diagram below - For first Australian sub if current AIP compartments (9 and 10) are deleted then that will allow all other compartments to be lengthened - including Crew's Accommodation (2) for longer bunks for the taller Australians, longer Torpedo Section (1) to take 2 or 3 UUVs as well as 20 HWTs. More space on lowest level for extra diesel fuel and Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)] 

- "The performance of the 29SS design architecture including crushing [pressure hull yield] strength will be demonstrated and validated based on experiments on the prototype [does S mean 29SS is the prototype?]"

The 2012 Financial Year planning and authorisation document “FY2012 Policy Report by Bureau of Finance and Equipment of Japanese Ministry of Defense” indicates:

"(5-1b) Needs of implementation in FY2013

Inhibition of enlargement due to the improvement of submarine performance is urgent issue in terms of target strength and reduction of ship price. Since the result of the study will be reflected in the newly designed submarine by conducting this study from the FY2013, the study is needed to start in this [2013?] fiscal year.

(5-1c) Reason for non-application of existing organization and equipment.

Although high density rigging [arrangement] of equipment [has been] carried out to inhibit [limit] enlargement in modern submarine [the Soryu?], the [arrangement has] already reached [the] limit. In the next generation submarine [29SS] with new equipment such as the new sonar, enlargement of hull is a concern. For this reason, the extension of length of compartments which contributes to the streamlining of the equipment of submarine is being considered. The solution of reinforcing the current pressure hull architecture with larger reinforced materials is expected to cause enlargement and increased price of the next generation submarine [29SS]. Adoption of new architecture is [therefore] needed.

(5-2) Efficiency

In this study, the system design required for the prototyping and evaluation of components and equipment will be conducted, various models (machined model, welded assembly model) will be prototyped, and their crushing [pressure hull yield] strength will be measured.

(5-3c) Confirmation of the effect

Prototyping and testing will be conducted from 2013 FY 2015 and from FY2014 to FY2015, respectively.

In it is planned to carry out the test.

(6) Timing of validation

Policy assessment (post-project evaluation) will be conducted in FY2016.


Soryu Diagram drawn by "wispywood2344".  A larger version of the diagram (with larger numbers) is at http://blog.livedoor.jp/wispywood2344/others/Soryu_cutaway.svg
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LITHIUM SULFUR BATTERIES (LSBs or Li-S)

Energy density diagram comparing batteries including Lead-acid (LABs), Lithium-ion (LIBs) and Li-S or Lithium Sulfer (LSBs) in watt-hour per kilogram (Wh/kg) and watt-hour per litre (Wh/l). LSBs are projected to be superior. (Diagram courtesy Oxis Energy)
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ONovember 15, 2015 at 2:25 PM S advised that:

"a few days ago, Japanese battery company GS YUASA announced (in Japanese language News Release http://www.gs-yuasa.com/jp/newsrelease/article.php?ucode=gs151114132202_191 ) that GS YUASA had succeeded in developing Lithium Sulfur Battery (LSB) with an excellent charge-discharge performance. 

This LSB with lithium anode and sulfur/porous carbon composite shows high energy density of 1000mAh/g (In the case of Japanese submarine with voltage of 450V, 1000mAh corresponds to 450kWh which is 10 times bigger than current LABs. ) and inhibits reduction of capacity with charge-discharge cycle. 

Submarines with LSB will show excellent performance from low to high speed regions. But, as metal Lithium is highly reactive to water, overcoming the safety issue will be a key element for practical application LSBs for submarine. Frankly speaking, it will be quite tough."

Pete Comment - So LIBs may be the new in-operation batteries for submarine from the 2020s while LSBs may be the next advance in batteries for use from the 2030s. Please connect with Submarine Matters http://gentleseas.blogspot.com.au/2015/06/li-s-or-lithium-sulfer-batteries-lsbs.html of June 1, 2015.


PMB Defence [LABs and LIBs] 

A snippet - PBM Defence (Australia’s Collins current supplier of LABs) may be effected by the future submarine purchase because the CEP may well be requiring Lithium-ion Batteries [LIBs] only. Possibly all 3 contenders in the CEP have approached PMB. See PMB mention on page 12 in this well produced brochure http://www.defencesa.com/upload/media-centre/publications/fac/3295/Techport%20Australia%20Brochure%20June%202015.pdf .

Pete

8 comments:

Unknown said...

In Japanese, but there are quite a few pics attached to this article:

http://www.sankei.com/smp/west/news/151102/wst1511020026-s.html

Peter Coates said...

Thanks Unknown

I'm displaying the first Soryu SS-508 image.

Regards

Pete

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

I introduce another information on Japanese submarine: i) figures and table of compartment elongation, and ii) expected floating deck and shock resistant damper [2] as shock resistant system, one of four major improvements of 29SS.

[1]http://www.mod.go.jp/j/approach/hyouka/seisaku/results/24/jizen/sankou/11.pdf,“FY2012 Policy Report by Bureau of Finance and Equipment of Japanese Ministry of Defense”, appendix. Meaning of Chinese characters are as follows:
Top “Operational Concept and Research Line”
Top second left “Pressure hull” and “Model of pressure hull” and top second right “System design”
Top third left “Reflection to design of future submarine”, “Elongation of compartment”, “Compartment”, “Future submarine”
Top third right “Reduction of ship price and inhibition of enlargement of submarine”
Bottom table top “Research and prototyping” bottom “Testing”

[2] http://www.mod.go.jp/trdi/data/pdf/kouhou/pamphlet2014.pdf “2014 Brochure of Technical Research & Development Institute, Ministry of Defense, Japan”, page22 ”Research of Shock Resistant Submarine Structure” by Naval Systems Research Center. You can find floating deck and shock resistant damper of pressure hull structure.

Regards
S

Peter Coates said...

Hi S

Thanks for those [Nov 16, 2015 11:38PM] details. I'll put them into an article next week.

Regards

Pete

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

(About LSBs)
Theoretical capacity and energy density of LSBs are 1672mgA/g and 2567Wh/kg, respectively. Latest laboratorial value of energy density is around 1300Wh/kg which reduces to 1000Wh/kg after 50 charge-discharge cycles. Practical but limited application of small LSBs in near future is expected.

(About floating deck)
According to Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF), floating deck is not new concept and has been adopted for US nuclear submarines more than two decades ago. I do not know why floating deck was not adopted until now.

Regards
S

MHalblaub said...

LIBs, LABs, LSB, ...

It's getting cold in Germany and I have to replace the LABs on my car.

I'm writing this on a mobile phone. Before there are no mobile phones with LSBs submariners should keep off such batteries.

Why are there no LIBs for cars as a starter battery? Price and or stability?

For submarines LIBs are not an easy solution. A sub with full charged batteries may have twice the endurance of LABs (exotic LIBs are too expensive); with LIBs also replacing an AIP maybe three times.

Then the sub has to surface and recharge two or three times the capacity of LABs. With the same old engined about 2 or 3 times longer recharging times. Or the same surface time without any gain for submerged travel.

For long enduring submerged missions only a real AIP works properly like a fuel cell system or a nuclear reactor. Due to several reasons the nuclear option is not suitable for Australia.

Regards,
MHalblaub

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete & MHalblaub

According to the researches of LIBs, development of LIBs for electric/hybrid electric vehicle is very important. Although anode materials are developed, conventional cathode materials have some issues such as low capacity, high cost and low conductivity to apply electric/hybrid electric vehicles. Practical capacity of current LIBs is 100-180mAh/g, but, LIBs with high capacity (270mAh/g) and high capacity retention (92% after 140charge/discharge cycles) are reported. In future, LIBs vehicle will be realized.

AIP is suitable for surveillance with low speed (less than 4knot/h) and long time, but is not suitable for battle field which needs fast motion, because AIP cannot produce huge amount of energy at once.

Regards
S

Peter Coates said...

Hi S and MHalblaub

I think the best way to perfect LIBs for submarine is rigorous testing on subs and then operational use.

In the case of Japan years of LIBs on 27SS onwards will increase Australia's confidence by the time (5 years later) that LIBs will be fitted to any Japanese designed subs for Australia.

If Australia is the first LIBs user on winning Shortfins or 216s this first use will present a considerable risk for the Australian customer.

So Australia will be the LIBs guinea pig if it chooses DCNS or TKMS but certainly safer if it chooses Japan.

Regards

Pete