October 3, 2017

Choice of Submarine LIBs - Management and Operation

In Submarine Matters' ongoing examination of Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) Anonymous's research and comments are always helpful. Anonymous's comments of  September 16 to 27, 2017 reveal much about the likely choice, management and operation of LIBs on submarines. Japan is leading the way with LIBs - planning full conversion to LIBs on new submarines launched from 2018 onwards (see Table below).


In the development of new LIB materials and control equipment for Japan's latest Soryu submarines, rigorous testing, prior to operational use, is required. LIB materials and equipment may fail under accelerated and severe condition testing. This includes testing under:
-  high or very low temperatures (the operational temperature of LIBs on Japanese submarines is
   within the range of 10-45 degrees C for efficient and safe operation) 
-  high pressures
-  strong mechanical stress, and
-  continuous vibration testing, etc.

Tri-ring advised the two simplest ways to avoid the particular LIB problem of "lithium plating" is to:
-   prevent over voltage during charging of LIBs (above 4.2 volts per cell), and
-   charging and discharging at low temperature (below 15⁰C). 
He adds that to counter thermal runaway of LIBs, great advances have been made in material science. One of them is a ceramic separator that has much higher resistance against heat.

The Japanese Ministry of Defence's (MOD) Acquisition, Technology & Logistic Agency (ATLA) and the Japanese Navy have been (and will be) conducting such testing of LIBs. For more accurate establishment of LIB safety standards, non accelerated testing under normal condition is preferable, even if this is time-consuming. 

Choice of LIBs

Japan has explored submarine use of many LIB combinations, including two that show exceptional stability at low temperatures and long charge-discharge cycle lives. These are 

-  Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) 2,000 cycle lives. As indicated here Anonymous advises the next
   subclass of TKMS Type 212As may adopt LFP (Pete would say the new 212As would be launched

   during the 2020s) 

-  Lithium Titanate (LTO) ( Li4Ti5O12 ) 7,000 cycles, made by Toshiba. 

For LFP and LTO such stability at low temperatures and with long cycle lives comes at the cost of  relatively low energy density.

-  Lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCADrawing from this article. To remedy this low LIB
   energy density problem Japan may well have settled on NCA ( LiNiCoAlO) LIBs for its Navy.
   These 
LIBs are made by GS Yuasa. Such LIBs are ideal for the Japanese Navy's mid-range
   continuous 
patrol operations.

All this LIB testing and subsequent use on Soryu submarines via liaison with France's Naval Group may contribute to use of LIBs on Australia's Shortfin Future Submarines (FSM). LIBs on Shortfins may be added from the first Shortfins onwards or fitted to later build Shortfins. TKMS, Saab-Kockums, Naval Group, Russia, China and MHI/KHI may develop fundamentally different LIBs for other submarines. Also their differing diesel engines are an additional diesel-electric variable. This means the efficiency and safety of LIBs developed by one submarine builder may note ensure efficient and safe use by other builders. 

For example Saab-Kockums and Russia that build submarines mainly for cold water operations may prefer LFP LIBs that may be more efficient in icy temperatures. As a customer Canada may prefer low temperature LIBs for its near Arctic Ocean operations. 

LIBs Management and Operation

Anonymous does not think a submarine's LIBs are discharged homogeneously (all at once and evenly). The numbers of charges and discharges of  LIBs during (say) a total of 4 charge-discharge phases over 96 hours) might occur as follows:
i)  half of the LIBs in the forward battery section may be used for the sub's first fully submerged dive and then charged in the first snorting
ii)  the other half of the forward LIBs is used for the second dive, then charged in the second snorting phase 
iii)  half of the LIBs in aft battery section is used for the third dive and then charged in the third snorting, and
iv)  the another half of the LIBs in the aft battery section is used for the fourth dive and then charged in the fourth snorting.

The management/operation (M/O) system of batteries/propulsion of  Japanese Oyashio and Soryu submarines is shown in 1 to 3 below. 

1 Oyashio class (built 1994-2006, see Table below)
In the eleven Oyashio class subs are classic DC motors reliant on limited capacity LABs. These make  the sub's fully submerged speed control complex. LABs are in 2 identical sections fore and aft (ie. 4 identical sections overall)
M/O of LABs are in parallel or series connection in sections/subsections
Propulsion: 2 identical DC motors

2 Soryu MK 1's (built 2005-present)
In the ten Soryu Mk 1s, latest Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) make speed control of the submarine easier. But the management of two power supply systems (LABs & AIP) is complex.
LABs: fore and aft sections consisted of 2 identical subsections, respectively (ie. 4 identical sections overall)
Stirling AIP
M/O of LABs: unknown
Propulsion: smaller and bigger AC motors; smaller one is for low speed

3 Soryu Mk 2s (estimation)(built 2015 (see Table) perhaps through to 2018)

Soryu Mk 2s adopt the simplest M/O system among Japanese submarines.
LIBs: fore and aft sections will consist of 2 identical subsections, respectively (ie. 4 identical sections overall)
M/O of LIBs: unknown, but may be in 4 phases, see i) to iv) above.
Propulsion: 2 identical AC motors

 TABLE - SORYU & Oyashio Program as at October 3, 2017 


SS
No.
Build No
Name
Pennant
No.
MoF approved amount ¥
Billions FY
LABs, LIBs, AIP
Laid Down
Laun
-ched
Commi
ssioned
Built
By
5SS Oyashio
8105 Oyashio
SS-590/ TS3608
¥52.2B FY1993
LABs only
 Jan 1994
Oct 1996
Mar 1998
 KHI
6SS-15SS
Oyashios
10 subs
8106
-8115
various
SS-591-600
¥52.2B per sub
FY1994-FY2003
LABs only
 15SS Feb
2004
15SS
Nov
2006
15SS
Mar 2008
 MHI
&
KHI
16SS
Soryu Mk 1
8116
Sōryū
SS-501
¥60B FY2004
LABs + AIP
Mar 2005
Dec 2007
Mar
2009
MHI
17SS
8117
Unryū
SS-502
¥58.7B FY2005
LABs + AIP
Mar 2006
Oct 2008
Mar
2010
KHI
18SS
8118
Hakuryū
SS-503
¥56.2 FY2006
LABs + AIP
Feb 2007
Oct 2009
Mar
2011
MHI
19SS
8119
Kenryū
SS-504
¥53B FY2007
LABs + AIP
Mar 2008
Nov 2010
Mar
2012
KHI
20SS
8120
Zuiryū
SS-505
¥51B FY2008
LABs + AIP
Mar 2009
Oct 2011
Mar
2013
MHI
No
21SS
No 21SS built
22SS
8121
Kokuryū
SS-506
¥52.8B FY2010
LABs + AIP
Jan 2011
Oct 2013
Mar
2015
KHI
23SS
8122
Jinryu
SS-507
¥54.6B FY2011
LABs + AIP
Feb 2012
Oct 2014
7 Mar 2016
MHI
24SS
8123
Sekiryū
SS-508
¥54.7B FY2012
LABs + AIP
KHI
25SS
8124
SS-509
¥53.1B FY2013
LABs + AIP
22 Oct 2013
12 Oct   2016
Mar? 2018
MHI
26SS
8125
SS-510
LABs + AIP
2014
?
Mar 2019?
KHI
27SS First
Soryu Mk 2
8126
SS-511
LIBs only
2015
2017?
Mar
2020
MHI
28SS  Second
Soryu Mark 2
8127
SS-512
¥63.6B FY2016
LIBs only
2016?
2018?
Mar 2021?
KHI
29SS First Soryu Mk 3
8128
?
¥76B FY2017
LIBs only
?
?
2023?
MHI?
30SS Second Soryu Mk 3
8029?
?
¥71.5B FY2018
LIBs only
?
?
2024?
KHI?
Table from information exclusively provided to Submarine MattersLABs = lead-acid batteries, AIP = air independent propulsion, LIBs = lithium-ion batteries. ¥***B = Billion Yen. MHI = Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, KHI Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation of Kawasaki Heavy Industries.
---


So LIB Management and Operation is complex but as the batteries work to computer terminals a submarine's engineers should be able to manage and operate LIBs more easily than lead-acid batteries.

By Anonymous & Pete

10 comments:

Tri-ring said...

Here is another tid-bit of information Toshiba had just announced.

http://www.toshiba.co.jp/about/press/2017_10/pr_j0301.htm

Basically Toshiba states they created a better anode material from TiNb oxide material.

I believe the original research was done by Inada Ryoji of Toyohashi University of Science.
Here is his thesis concerning his research.

https://www.sangetsu.co.jp/hibizaidan/pdf/hibi_25/006.pdf

Toshiba claims that it will have double the energy density compared to conventional LiTiO batteries, sustains 90% capacity after 5000 recharge cycles and can be quickly recharged at -10℃.
Compared to conventional LIBs used in small EVs the new SCiB can be charged three time the amount in 6 minutes.

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

As an evolution of Soryu-class from Oyashio, adoption of Stirling AIP is emphasized, but also evolution of propulsion motors should be emphasized.

In Oyashio-class with DC motors, rotation velocity of motors is controlled by various combination of series and parallel connections of motors, LABs sections and subsections.

In Soryu-class with PMSMs, rotation speed of motors is steplessly controlled by power from inverter unit and by signal from speed control unit. Accoring to reiterd vice-admiral Masao Kabayashi, in countries other than Japan, TKMS adopts PMSMs for its latest submarines.

LFPs may be applied to next TKMS 212, and it seems to be good selection.

Regards

MHalblaub said...

Dear Anonymous,

the next batch of Type 212A is already there: U 35 and U36.
Both submarines have no Lithium based main batteries. Lead as usual. Type 212A has one small Diesel engine to recharge the batteries. Lithium batteries did make it on the list for the second batch but not on the final list.

Maybe the 3rd batch for Norway (4) and Germany (2) will have different batteries. Italy also likes more submarines to replace all Sauro class submarines but money ...
Who cares about batteries in case you have methanol fuel cells aboard...

Regards,
Halblaub

Anonymous said...

Hi Halblaub & Pete

At least ATLAS ELEKTRONIK and TKMS seem to care batteries [1, 2].

[1] https://www.atlas-elektronik.com/contact/press/news-detail/news/atlas-elektronik-to-launch-lithium-iron-phosphate-exercise-battery-on-udt-2014/

“Safety is paramount in the demanding technological environment of the submarine. ATLAS ELEKTRONIK and ALSE have succeeded in passing all tests based on the demanding safety standards of the German Navy needed to achieve certification and clearance for use on submarines of its new Lithium Iron Phosphate rechargeable battery. This was achieved by a deliberate choice for the safest Lithium Ion type battery chemistry available, Lithium Iron Phosphate, and a unique dedicated battery cell design by ALSE that achieves primary safety. This ALSE battery cell is then integrated by ATLAS into the exercise battery. A battery whose cells conform to primary safety standard does not contain any risks that necessitate extensive secondary safety measures. This ensures a maximum of safety beyond that of the legacy battery system and other offerings on the market.”

[2] https://www.atlas-elektronik.com/contact/press/news-detail/news/thyssenkrupp-marine-systems-from-platform-to-systems-provider/ (Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems: from platform to systems provider 04/03/2017)

“Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems has taken a major step in its development. By now closing the acquisition of ATLAS ELEKTRONIK by thyssenkrupp, thyssenkrupp Marine Systems transforms into an integrated systems provider. The two companies will combine their strengths and offer their customers the full range of solutions from a single source.”

Regards

Peter Coates said...

Hi MHalblaub [at 5/10/17 7:12 AM]

With all this extra data coming in about future AIP and LIBs for the TKMS Type 212s I'll need to draw up a new Table to summarise these changes.

Regards

Pete

Peter Coates said...

Hi Anonymous [at 5/10/17 6:32 PM]

Thanks for the 2 ATLAS ELEKTRONIK references which fairly well describe TKMS intentions to eventually use Lithium Iron Phosphate LIBs for new versions of the 212As (or will they be called 212Bs?)

As I've mentioned to MHalblaub above I'll need to draw up a 212A development Table similar to the Soryu Table concept http://gentleseas.blogspot.com.au/2017/10/choice-of-submarine-libs-management-and.html

Regards

Pete

Anonymous said...

Hi Pete

In Japanese submarines, snorkel system, diesel generator and propulsion motor will be improved with application of LIBs. I think simular modification will be conducted in German LIBs submarine.

As power of AIP (FC&Stirling) is low, power source of submarine at high speed submerge depends on batteries. Application of LIBs and inhencement of propulsion motor improve high speed performance. Modification of snorkel and diesel generator allow quick charge of LIBs decreasing indiscretion rate.

Regards

Anonymous said...

See this publication:

https://mastconfex.com/brands/mast/library/MAST_Asia_2017_Agenda.pdf

Page 58: Atlas Elektronik

Abstract on „Powering Diesel-Electric Submarines with Propulsion Batteries Based on High-capacity Lithium-Iron Phosphate Cells“

Peter Coates said...

Hi Anonymous [8/10/17 6:09 PM]

I hope one day Japan can market all its new technologies (LIBs, snorkel, diesel generators) into a submarine design Japan can export for $500 million - $1 billion per submarine program cost.

Regards

Pete


Peter Coates said...

Thanks Anonymous [at 22/10/17 7:02 AM]

For drawing SubMatt's attention to the Japanese Government's "mastasia" Maritime/Air System's Technologies Conference 12th-14th June 2017, Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Tokyo see
https://mastconfex.com/brands/mast/library/MAST_Asia_2017_Agenda.pdf

Page 59 indicates German, specifically Atlas Elektronik, interest in LIBs development,

"Session 5B: Domain: Undersea
Undersea Platform Technology I
Dr Janis Cocking
Powering Diesel-Electric Submarines with Propulsion
Batteries Based on High-capacity Lithium-Iron Phosphate
Cells
Mr Andreas Dohrn, ATLAS Elektronik GmbH, Germany

In recent years, the chemistry of submarine batteries has
increasingly moved into the technological and mission-strategic
focus of both submarine manufacturers and their respective
customer Navies alike. It does not come as a surprise that
highest attention is more and more often paid to what is
commonly considered as key to a submarine’s performance,
namely the batteries’ combination of energy content and power,
especially during submerged operation.

Manufacturers of non-nuclear-powered submarines worldwide
utilize battery cells based on Lead Acid chemistry for more
than 100 years. While its operational behaviour is regarded as
well-known, the maturity of its design comes for a price:
the operational endurance of typical Lead Acid battery cells as
used in today’s SSKs is particularly limited at high discharge
rates the cells’ design, mainly driven by their energy density, does not
leave any viable room for redundancy and its maintenance
comes at great cost in terms of operational efforts and budget,
its architectural short-comings require for substantial extrinsic
safety measures

This paper highlights the development of a novel secondary
battery concept to substitute Lead Acid chemistry used by both
in-service and newly built Diesel-electric submarines with the
aim of;
meeting today’s safety requirements including e.g. stringent
German military standards,
facilitating mechanical and electrical adaptability to all major
Diesel-electric submarine classes and
exceeding today’s requirements with regard to performance,
this way setting new standards.
This paper therefore explores the ALSE Advanced Lithium
Systems Europe–development of a new safety-optimized cell
design, based on the significantly safer Lithium-Iron-Phosphate
cell technology.

The development is explained and presented in the context of
the ALF300M type secondary battery cells, detailing the safeto-handle
design, low maintenance and design aspects that
optimize lifetime performance. Furthermore, the battery cells
are placed in operational context through description of the
framework developed by ATLAS ELEKTRONIK for a modular
submarine battery solution and its inherent operational benefits
for all major – existing and new – Diesel-electric Submarines
world-wide."