December 31, 2018

South Korean Destroyer Confrontation with Japanese P-1 MPA


Many thanks to Anonymous for comments of December 23, 2018 concerning a South Korean (SK) destroyer [1] locking its weapons-guidance radar onto a Japanese Navy, Japanese designed Kawasaki P-1 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA). This occured twice for several minutes on December 20, 2018 within the Japanese EEZ [2-3]. See complexity of location statuses in Map below.

The SK Navy said the radar irradiation was used being used, on December 20, 2018, to search for a North Korean ship in distress.

Japan’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) does not believe the SK explanation and believes the radar lock-on was intentional. This is because a weapon-guidance radar is not suitable for surface search purposes [5]. Japan’s MoD feels SK Navy conducted a hostile act against a friendly country. This SK act breeds distrust between Japan and SK.





[5] SK Gwanggaeto the Great destroyers are equipped with complex sensors (see wikipedia right sidebar) including a:
-  Signal Tracking and Illuminating Radar (STR) for weapon-guidance. This was used to track or
   “paint” the P-1. According to experts STRs are not used for surface search, and 
-  AN/SPS-55 radar for surface search.
--------------------------------------------------------------------



Tri-ring has provided the Japanese P-1 MPA's December 20, 2018 Youtube video at https://youtu.be/s93-l68D3Eo with voice recordings of P-1's encounter with the South Korean destroyer.

Youtube seems to get most interesting, were the P-1 aircraft crew say:

- 6 mins 4 seconds in: "[Destroyer is] emitting radar"

- 6min 7sec "She is emitting FC (fire-control) type radar"

- 6m 9s "FC contact (rada is detected."

- 6m 16s "We should steer clear."

- 6m 29 "Moving away from the vessel for the time being."

- 6m 38s "...Radar is continuously detected."

- 6m 45s "The sound is so loud (the radio field intensity is terribly strong.)"

- 6m 56s "The gun is not directed at us."

- 8m 29s [The FC radar signal] "is not something that is occurring now, but we observed this."

- 8m 44s "The crew will call out using the International VHF 121.5 MHz."

- 8m 50s "FC radar is detected again."

 The P-1 crew then ask the destroyer the following Question in English:

-  9m 7s "Korean Naval Ship. Hull Number 971....We observe that your FC [fire control] antenna is directed to us...What is the purpose of your act? Over"

[no answer from South Korean destroyer]

- 9m 45s [repeats question]

- 10m 30s [repeats question]

- 11m [repeats question]

- 11m 30s onwards [Japanese P-1 "Captain" confirming that his P-1 crew have recorded the radar signals from the South Korean destroyer.]

- 12m 20s [repeats question]

- 12m 50s [repeats question]

[no answer from South Korean destroyer given to repeated questions. 

Pete Comment 

Maybe the destroyer was not operating on Japanese MPA frequencies? Or destroyer not fully monitoring frequencies. So never heard the questions?]
-------------------------------------------------

Pete Comment

Distrust remains between South Korea and Japan partly due to unresolved disputes since Japan’s occupation of Korea which ended in 1945. Several of the disputes include islands and territorial waters and so includes the Destroyer-MPA confrontation.

Japan and South Korea are not enemies but they are not friends.


Map: Pete Comment - This South Korean hani new agency map, illustrating the destroyer-MPA confrontation, reflects the complexity of  different territorial statuses to which was added the complexity of the destroyer's differing radar functions.
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By Anonymous and Tri-ring

and Have a Happy New Year
from Pete

December 23, 2018

Funny Christmas Quotes and Thankyou

A lovely Christmas Carol from far away.
---


Thankyou everyone who has read Submarine Matters during 2018. And thankyou all who have commented. In 2019 I aim to move to Adelaide, South Australia, where most of Australia's naval ship and submarine building is to happen.

The social situations of Christmas are often funny. Here's a list of what some might have quipped in the past.

“Santa Claus has the right idea. Visit people only once a year.”– Victor Borge

After a good Christmas dinner one can forgive anybody, even one's own relatives. - Oscar Wilde

So we put up the National Christmas Tree to celebrate the birth of Jesus. But we won't take it down. It can stay up to celebrate MY Birthday in June. – Donald Trump

“I stopped believing in Santa Claus when I was six. Mum took me to see Santa in a department store. Then Santa asked me for my autograph.”– Shirley Temple

“Aren’t we forgetting the true meaning of Christmas. The birth of Santa?”– Matt Groening

“There ain’t no Sanity Clause” – Chico Marx

“I bought my kids a set of batteries for Christmas with a note saying, toys not included.” 
Bernard Manning

"Christmas is a time when you get homesick, even when you’re home." - Carol Nelson

Wretched, guilty, excess is an unfortunate human trait that turns what should be a quiet, peaceful, Christmas season into a crazy frenzy of shopping. – Radar O'Reilly


Christmas Shopping: I think its wonderful to buy all my friends a gift that doesn't need dusting, but is practical and personal. So I bought all my friends Gift Certificates for flu shots.
 Dagwood Bumstead

“What kind of Christmas present would Jesus ask Santa for?” - Salman Rushdie

 “There are some people who want to throw their arms round you simply because its Christmas; there are other people who want to strangle you simply because it is Christmas.”– Robert Lynd

"At Christmas, Santa's presents are compulsory. Relatives are optional.” ― Santa

Wishing everyone all the best over Christmas and in 2019.

Pete

December 21, 2018

Excellent Youtube on Virginia class SSN capabilities.


Don't worry about the German Type 212A start frame. This is about US Virginia SSNs.
---

After 4 minutes of hype this August 2017 Youtube settles down to a considered account of the Virginia class submarine's capabilities:

-  4 minutes in - Development at Electric Boat, Groton, computer-aided design

-  5 min, 28 sec - simulation of an underwater explosions against the submarine hull

-  6m 10s - launch of USS Texas (SSN-775) in 2005

-  6m 30s - on board sensors continuously monitor the air supply. Turning seawater into clean air.

-  8m - Uses HY100 pressure hull steel

-  8m 22s - Russia's supercavitating nuclear armed (?) Shkval torpedo threat.

-  9m - seeing and hearing enemy first is the key.

-  9m 44s - simulated firing of a Mark 48 torpedo.

-  11m - Possibly aided by US intel gathering the US was developing a "Barracuda"
    supercavitating torpedo answer to the Shkval rocket powered torpedo in the early 2000s? The
    Barracuda "outruns its own sound waves" so is silent to the target submarine's sensors.

   [Comment: But the Barracuda's noise may deafen its own on-board sonars! Maybe the Barracuda
   torpedo was shelved(?). Or maybe the US is quietly relying on stocks of old or improved VLS or
   torpedo tube launched nuclear SUBROCs as revenge rockets?]

-  13m - If stealth means wanting to be "a hole in the water" maybe anti-sub sensors may be looking
   for that atypical of sea conditions hole?

-  13m 40s - the (radar, sonar and optical) vulnerability of conventional subs (old and new) that
    need to surface or snort to take in air for their loud diesels to recharge their batteries.

-  15m 20s - Vivid illustration of the sonar research that goes on in the lakeside Bayview, Idaho,
   Acoustic Research Detachment (see earlier Submarine Matters' article)

-  17m 55s - the anechoic tiles/layer placed on the outside (and sometimes inside) submarine hull

-  18m 20s - uses of the subs sonars

-  19m 10s - location of the sub's sonar arrays

-  20m - the spherical bow sonar array being able to hears ships "1,000 miles" away. Ends.

Pete 

December 20, 2018

Japan Buying Around 190 F-35s. Some for F-35B aircraft carriers


Japan on December 18, 2018 announced Japan’s Izumo-class “helicopter destroyers” will become true aircraft carriers by hosting F-35B  STOVL stealth jets. Japan hasn’t wielded true carriers since 1945.

By coincidence the Izumo class's second ship is JS Kaga. An actual World War Two Imperial Japanese Navy carrier was called IJN Kaga.  IJN Kaga was sunk at the Battle of Midway.

Japan on December 18, 2018 announced that it would change its defense guidelines and buy:

-  105 more F-35As (in addition to the 42 F-35As it is already buying). So totalling 147 F-35As, and

-   40 F-35Bs (about 20 for training and 10 each to operate off JS Izumo and Kaga.

These around 190 F-35s for Japan will make Japan the second largest F-35 owner in the world after the US itself.

Japan said it would alter the flattop decks of Izumo and Kaga to handle weight, heat and blast when operating F-35Bs. 

Japan's carrier decision is in the face of rising threats from China, Russia, and North Korea. Also its reacting against US President Trump tweets that Japan is not paying enough for Japan's own defences.

Japan had originally sought F-22 long-range, stealthy air superiority fighters to replace its aging F-4 Phantoms and F-15 Eagles. US refusal to export F-22s means Japan has had to settle for F-35s. Japan has made some gestures toward developing its own stealth jets (equivalent to F-22s). But the costs and difficulties of developing Japanese stealth jets have been too great for a serious project.

Japan’s extra F-35 buying strategy is also arms buying trade-diplomacy to increase the chances that the more powerful US formidable armed forces (in Japan, Okinawa, Guam and South Korea) will protect Japan.

Australia

This F-35B purchase by Japan may also influence a possible future F-35B purchase by Australia. This is noting Australia is buying 72 F-35As and has two Izumo sized flat top Canberra class LHDs already fitted with ski-jump bows for STOVL jets. See 5th paragraph down in the Design and capabilities subsection.

Pete

December 19, 2018

China May Have Tested JL-3 SLBM - US Eventually in Range

Bill Gertz of the Washington Free Beacon, (with frequent access to the most pessimistic interpretations of US alarm-int) December 18, 2018 announced what may be a partial test flight of a Chinese JL-3 submarine launched ballistic missile (SLBM). 

[Comment: This article appears to hype the many unknowns of the future JL-3 and future Type 096 SSBN. Both may only be operational in a decade. The US DoD China Military Power 2018 Report (15 MB, PDF) indicates on page 29 "China’s next generation Type 096 SSBN, reportedly to be armed with the follow-on JL-3 SLBM, will likely begin construction in the early-2020s."]

Highlights of the announcement include: a JL-3 test flight occurred in late November 2018. 
[Comment - But apparently the test was in the rather closed waters of the Bohai Sea near Dalian. This suggests only a "cold launch" (ie. no rocket motors provided thrust).] 

The JL-3 will reportedly be 10 MIRV capable and may have a 7,456 to 8,700 mile range, from Bohai, Yellow and East China Sea bastions capable of hitting most of the continental US. The JL-3s are being developed for China’s future Type 096 SSBNs (expected to be operational by the mid-to-late 2020s) but JL-3s may be used earlier, in existing modified Type 094 SSBNs. 

The test launch may have been from a large conventional Type 032 Qing class technology testbed submarine. The Type 032’s fin/sail may contain 2 or 3 missile launch tubes, reportedly enlarged for JL-3 tests.

The one and only 6,000+ tonne Chinese Type 032 Qing class submarine, in 2013. Note very long sail/fin - thought to accommodate vertical launch system (VLS) tubes for missile tests. (Photo courtesy Chinese Military Review)
 ---

Type 032 in an "August 2017" photo, with a higher/enlarged rear of sail/fin, maybe for longer VLS to test a longer/higher JL-3 missile. (Photo courtesy the December 2018 Washington Free Beacon article.)
---

The reportedly solid-fueled JL-3 may use technologies from the DF-41 land-based ICBM. The JL-3 may be comparable to the US/UK Trident II D-5 and Russian Bulava SLBMs.

The JL-3 may utilize advanced precision guidance technology with anti-jamming capabilities, may be variable trajectory, and may have fast burning rocket motors that seek to reduce the heat signature picked up by US warning satellites to track and target JL-3s.

“China's current sea-based nuclear force includes four Type-094 missile submarines, each outfitted with "16" missiles [more likely 12]. Internet reports from China have stated that the future Type-096 will carry up to 24 missiles - similar to numbers at one time carried by Navy Ohio-class missile submarines. Current U.S. missile submarines [may] carry 20 missiles each.”

By contrast, the next generation U.S. missile submarine, the Columbia-class, will carry 16 missiles.
[There may be a] growing possibility of offensive nuclear cooperation between China and Russia." so “Washington needs to retain the flexibility to increase the number of missiles carried by the future Columbia class SSBN."
SEE WHOLE WASHINGTON FREE BEACON ARTICLE

December 18, 2018

Brazil finally launches conventional Scorpene submarine Riachuelo

Brazil's first Naval Group Scorpene submarine Riachuelo finally launched on 
December 14, 2018. (Photo courtesy Mauro Pimentel/AFP/Getty Images via  DefenseNews)
---

Almost as a piece of devotional archeology, Submarine Matters (in 2014 and more usefully in 2015) has been reporting on Brazil's delayed, interrupted, Naval Group overseen, conventional and nuclear submarine program. The program is called PROSUB and less polite names. 


It is heartening that Brazil's first Scorpene, Riachuelo (S40) laid down in 2010 was launched December 14, 2018One cannot blame Naval Group for Brazil's delayed program. 

Brazil's conventional sub program is about 5 years behind schedule, mainly due to Brazil's peculiar system of defense budgeting. The system goes something like - if insufficient money in Year A's defense budget, then no submarine building progress in Year A. 

Naval Group produced some of Riachuelo's sections in Cherbourg, France. Then, to save time, Naval Group went to the trouble of flying them to the Brazilian assembly yard in 2012. 

Brazil currently operates 5 Tupi class Type 209 submarines.

Due to standard first of class delays, and Brazil's defense budgeting system, Riachuelo's
 commissioning may be in 2021. 

Launch of the 3 remaining Scorpenes may occur every 2 or 3 years (ie. 2021, 2023 and 2025). 

No.     Name            Laid down                Launched      Commissioned              Based

S40     Riachuelo       27 May 2010                     2018           maybe 2021             Itaguai, Sepetiba Bay

S41     Humaitá         1 Sept 2013                 maybe 2021      maybe 2023             Itaguai, Sepetiba Bay

S42     Tonelero         maybe 2021                maybe 2023       maybe 2025            Itaguai, Sepetiba Bay

S43     Angostura       maybe 2023                maybe 2025      maybe 2027             Itaguai, Sepetiba Bay

Pete

December 17, 2018

Japan’s NTO aka TNO (2nd Generation LIB) for Submarine Tables

Anonymous has advised of Lithium-ion Batteries (LIBs) for submarine developments. Pete's comments are in [...] brackets.

There are rumours that the Japanese Navy my eventually replace its NCA LIBS with LTO [maybe operational in the 2030s] and then NTO/TNO LIBs [maybe operational in the 2040s]. These again are rumours but such replacement is logical given the improving development paths of new-generation LIBs. See details of these new LIBs below.

As the current NCA LIB module is governed by the architecture of the preceding lead-acid battery (LAB) Soryu submarine and is not optimal for LIBs, the next generation LIBs will become smaller to achieve a better arrangement. Also, the structure of LIBs and their module arrangements will be altered to achieve higher efficiency and better safety. These changes will require a total review of current LIB production facilities. Financing this is essential.

[Pete Comment - While European countries have  made statements that they are developing LIBs for submarines, Japan has made concrete progress. Japan has actually launched a medium-large conventional submarine (the Oryu) with LIBs. This will give regional superiority (compared to other SSKs) to the Oryu and the Japanese LIBs submarines that follow it.]

The two main First Generation LIBs for submarine that Japan has been developing are:

NCA – (Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide) produced by Japanese company GS Yuasa. This is the LIB type in the Oryu. Oryu is a Soryu Mark 2 (aka Mk. II) (see TABLE 1. and 2. below). NCA has high energy density, but has a relatively short cycle life and less stability, and

LTO (Lithium Titanate Oxide) produced by Toshiba. Following Japan’s policy of continual evolution in submarines the Japanese Ministry of Defence (MoD) is developing a next generation LIB known as LTO. LTO LIBs will be smaller and more efficient than current NCA LIBs. Studies are being made in FY2017 and 2018. LTO’s are being developed in a Aus$1 billion program 2019 to 2023. Also, new silent [electromagnetic?] propulsion is to be developed. LTO and silent propulsion may be applied to Soryu Mark 3s or a new submarine class to follow the Soryu [see TABLE 2.]. Japan proposed LTO LIBs in Australia’s submarine competition (CEP, SEA 1000). LTO features has a longer cycle life and higher stability, but this is at the expense of low energy density.

Further details on NCA and LTO are at these 2 Submarine Matters article (here and here) both of October 17, 2018.

Since 2017 Toshiba has continued the development of a second generation Lithium-ion Battery (LIB) type using Niobium Titanium Oxide (NTO)(aka titaniumniobate (TNO)). NTO is composed of TiNb2O. NTO’s energy density (160-200Wh/kg?) is twice that of Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO). NTO also has longer charge/discharge cycle life (5000 cycles?) and has higher stability than LTO. In June 2018 Toshiba announced it had made a deal with a Brazilian mining company to mass produce NTO in 2020 (also see https://www.energytrend.com/news/20180627-12359.html ).

NTO’s energy density and cycle life is also reportedly superior to Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP). LFP, that Europe’s SAFT is developing, has an energy density of 90-120kWh/kg and cycle life of 1000-2000) .

[ See this good Niobium in LIBs website (which, on its last page, favourably compares NTO (aka TNO) with LTO, NCA and LFP. Complete string https://www.cbmm.com/-/media/CBMM/Resource-Center/PDFs/Mobility---Mobilidade/Niobium-in-Li-Ion-Batteries.ashx  ]

TABLE 1.  LIBS BY GENERATION (provided by Anonymous)

Name and abbreviation
Composition and abbreviation
Energy density [kW/kg]
(theoretical)
Note
First Generation
LIBs
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide
NCA
LiNiCoAlO2 or NCA
260
On Soryus Oryu (27SS) & 28SS.
From Japan's GS Yuasa
Lithium Cobalt Oxide
LiCoO2 or LCO
200 (1014)
Shinkai 6500
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide
LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC
200
Lithium Manganese Oxide
LiMn2O4 or LMO
140 (410)
Proto-type by JMSDF
Lithium Iron Phosphate  LFP
LiFePO4    LFP
LFYP in China is family of LFP.
120 (575)
China. Separately SAFT
Lithium titanate LTO
Li4Ti5O12 or 
LTO
80
Toshiba. Offered to Aus in CEP
LABs
LAB
40
LSBs
Lithium-sulfur LSB
Li2S3   LSB
theoretically
about (2500)
Second
Generation LIBs
Lithium Ion Silicate
Li2FeSiO4
(1584)
High Safety, low cycle performance
Lithium Manganese Silicate
Li2MnSiO4
(1485)
High Safety, low cycle performance
Niobium Titanium Oxide NTO
TiNb2O7    NTO
160-200Wh/kg?
Toshiba

-----------------------------------------------------------

TABLE 2.   SORYU & Oyashio Program as at December 17, 2018 

SS
No.
Diesel Type
Motor
Build No
Name
Pennant
No.
MoF approved amount ¥
Billions FY
LABs, LIBs, AIP
Laid Down
Laun
-ched
Commi
ssioned
Built
By
5SS Oyashio
8105 Oyashio
SS-590/ TS3608
¥52.2B FY1993
LABs only
 Jan 1994
Oct 1996
Mar 1998
 KHI
6SS-15SS
Oyashios 
10 subs
SMC-7?
8106
-8115
various
SS-591-600
¥52.2B per sub
FY1994-FY2003
LABs only
 15SS Feb
2004
15SS
Nov
2006
15SS
Mar 2008
 MHI
&
KHI
16SS
Soryu Mk 1
SMC-8
8116
Sōryū
SS-501
¥60B FY2004
LABs + AIP
Mar 2005
Dec 2007
Mar
2009
MHI
17SS
8117
Unryū
SS-502
¥58.7B FY2005
LABs + AIP
Mar 2006
Oct 2008
Mar
2010
KHI
18SS
8118
Hakuryū
SS-503
¥56.2 FY2006
LABs + AIP
Feb 2007
Oct 2009
Mar
2011
MHI
19SS
8119
Kenryū
SS-504
¥53B FY2007
LABs + AIP
Mar 2008
Nov 2010
Mar
2012
KHI
20SS
8120
Zuiryū
SS-505
¥51B FY2008
LABs + AIP
Mar 2009
Oct 2011
Mar
2013
MHI
No 21SS
No 21SS built
22SS
8121
Kokuryū
SS-506
¥52.8B FY2010
LABs + AIP
Jan 2011
Oct 2013
Mar
2015
KHI
23SS
8122
Jinryu
SS-507
¥54.6B FY2011
LABs + AIP
Feb 2012
Oct 2014
7 Mar 2016
MHI
24SS
8123
Sekiryū
SS-508
¥54.7B FY2012
LABs + AIP
KHI
25SS
8124
SS-509
¥53.1B FY2013
LABs + AIP
22 Oct 2013
12 Oct   2016
MHI
26SS
end of SMC-8s
8125
SS-510
LABs + AIP
2014
6 Nov 2017
Mar 2019?
KHI
27SS First
Soryu Mark 2
diesel
first SMC-8B
motor
8126
SS-511
LIBs only
(NCA type)
2015
4 Oct
2018
Mar
2020?
MHI
28SS  Second
Soryu Mark 2
SMC-8B
8127
SS-512
¥63.6B FY2016
LIBs only
(NCA type?)
2016?
Oct 2019?
Mar 2021?
KHI
29SS First Soryu Mark 3
SMC-9?
8128
?
¥76B FY2017
LIBs only?
?
?
2023?
MHI?
30SS Second Soryu Mk 3
8029?
?
¥71.5B FY2018
LIBs only?
?
?
2024?
KHI?
Table from information exclusively provided to Submarine MattersLABs = lead-acid batteries, AIP = air independent propulsion, LIBs = Lithium-ion Batteries. ¥***B = Billion Yen. MHI = Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, KHI = Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation of Kawasaki Heavy Industries. 
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Thankyou Anonymous (further translation by Pete).